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OFakazi BakaJehova

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Phaphama!  |  No. 5 2016

 EZASENDULO

U-Aristotle

U-Aristotle

EMINYAKENI engaphezu kuka-2 300 edlule, u-Aristotle waba negalelo elikhulu kwezesayensi nefilosofi. Imisebenzi yakhe isinesikhathi eside ithandwa kanti isihunyushwe futhi yafundwa kabanzi. Uprofesa wezomlando uJames MacLachlan wabhala ukuthi “imibono ka-Aristotle ngokuphathelene nemvelo yaba nethonya elikhulu endleleni abaseYurophu ababebheka ngayo izinto iminyaka ecishe ibe ngu-2 000.” Eminye yemibono ka-Aristotle yathonya ngisho nezimfundiso zobuKatolika, ezobuProthestani kanye nezobuSulumane.

Wayethanda Izinto Eziningi Ezihlukahlukene

U-Aristotle wabhala ngesayensi yamandla kazibuthe, yezinkanyezi, yezinto ezinyakazayo, yezinto eziphilayo, yezokusebenza kwengqondo, yokufinyelela iziphetho, ezobuciko, ezokuzijabulisa, ezokuziphatha, ezolimi, ezombusazwe, ezomthetho, ifilosofi yendalo, izinkondlo, ukusebenzisa amagama ngobuciko kanye nomphefumulo, ayekholelwa ukuthi uyafa. Nokho, udume kakhulu ngemisebenzi yakhe kwezesayensi yezinto eziphilayo neyokufinyelela iziphetho.

Izazi zasendulo ezingamaGreki zazithembela emakhonweni azo okubheka izinto ngokucophelela, okuhlobanisa izinto nawokufinyelela iziphetho ukuze zichaze indawo ezungezile. Ziqala ngalokho ezazikholelwa ukuthi kungamaqiniso asobala, zazikholelwa ukuthi uma zingahlolisisa ngokucophelela lawo maqiniso, zazingakwazi ukufinyelela iziphetho ezinembile.

Ziqondiswa yileyo filosofi, zakwazi ukufinyelela iziphetho ezithile ezinengqondo—esinye esiwukuthi kunokuhleleka okuthile endaweni yonke. Nokho, inkinga enkulu kwakuwukuthi amakhono azo okuhlolisisa izinto ayegcina kulokho ezazingakubona futhi zikuzwe ngaphandle kwemishini—ukushiyeka okwenza inqwaba yamadoda ahlakaniphile yanhlanhlatha, kuhlanganise naye u-Aristotle. Ngokwesibonelo, zazikholelwa ukuthi amaplanethi nezinkanyezi kuzungeza umhlaba. Ngaleso sikhathi, lokhu kwakuthathwa njengeqiniso elisobala.  Incwadi ethi The Closing of the Western Mind ithi: “Kokubili ukucabanga nalokho ababekubona kwakubonakala kuhambisana nemibono yamaGreki ngomhlaba ozungezwa amaplanethi nezinkanyezi.

Lowo mbono oyiphutha wawuzoba nemiphumela engatheni ukube wagcina emkhakheni wezesayensi. Kodwa awuzange.

UbuKatolika Bamukela Izimfundiso Zika-Aristotle

EYurophu “yobuKristu” yangeNkathi Ephakathi, ezinye zezimfundiso zika-Aristotle zamukelwa ngokusemthethweni njengamaqiniso atholakele—okungukuthi, zathathwa njengezinembile. Izazi zemfundiso yenkolo ezingamaRoma Katolika—ikakhulu uThomas Aquinas (cishe wango-1224-1274)—zafaka imibhalo ka-Aristotle ezimfundisweni zazo zenkolo. Ngakho, umbono ka-Aristotle wokuthi umhlaba umi phakathi nendawo futhi uzungezwa amaplanethi nezinkanyezi waba imfundiso esemthethweni yamaKatolika. Le mfundiso yamukelwa nangabaholi bamaProthestani, abanjengoCalvin noLuther, abathi iseBhayibhelini.—Bheka ibhokisi elithi “ Babebona Sengathi IBhayibheli Lisho Izinto Elingazishongo.

Ezinye zezimfundiso zika-Aristotle zamukelwa ngokusemthethweni njengamaqiniso atholakele

Umlobi uCharles Freeman wathi: “Kweminye imikhakha [izimfundiso zika-Aristotle] nobuKatolika kwakungasahlukaniseki.” Ngakho, kuye kuthiwe u-Aquinas “wabhapathizela” u-Aristotle enkolweni yobuKatolika. Nokho, uFreeman wathi eqinisweni, “ngu-Aquinas owashintshela ezimfundisweni zika-Aristotle.” Futhi ngokwezinga elithile, singase senezele ukuthi nesonto lashintshela kuzo. Ngenxa yalokho, usosayenzi wezinkayezi nesazi sezibalo uGalileo, owaveza ubufakazi bokuthi umhlaba uzungeza ilanga, kwadingeka avele eNkantolo Yamacala Ezihlubuki futhi waphoqelelwa ukuba ahoxise umbono wakhe. * Ngokumangazayo, u-Aristotle waqaphela ukuthi ulwazi ngesayensi luyinto eqhubekayo futhi lungathuthukiswa noma nini. Ukube nje namasonto aba nombono ofanayo!

^ isig. 11 Ukuze uthole okwengeziwe, bheka isihloko esithi “Galileo’s Clash With the Church,” kuyi-Phaphama! yesiNgisi ka-April 22, 2003.