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 EZASENDULO

U-Ignaz Semmelweis

U-Ignaz Semmelweis

U-IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS kungenzeka akabanga undabuzekwayo, kodwa umsebenzi wakhe uzuzise imindeni eminingi yanamuhla. Wazalelwa eBuda (esiyiBudapest), eHungary, wayesethola iziqu zobudokotela eYunivesithi YaseVienna ngo-1844. Lapho eqala ukuba umsizi kaprofesa eFirst Maternity Clinic yesiBhedlela SaseVienna ngo-1846, uSemmelweis wabhekana nesimo esishaqisayo—abesifazane abangamaphesenti angaphezu kuka-13 ababebeletha lapho babebulawa yisifo okuthiwa i-childbed fever.

Zaziziningi izimbangela zalesi sifo ezazicatshangelwa, kodwa akekho owayekwazile ukuthola okuyiyonayona. Yonke imizamo yokunciphisa inani lomama ababefa ayiphumelelanga. Ehlushwa yisimanga somama abaningi kangaka ababefa kabuhlungu, kancane kancane, uSemmelweis wazimisela ukuthola nokuvimbela imbangela yalesi sifo.

Isibhedlela uSemmelweis ayesebenza kuso sasinezindawo ezimbili ezihlukene zokubelethisa futhi kwakuxaka ukuthi kwenye indawo kwakufa omama abaningi kakhulu kunakwenye. Lezi zindawo zazihlukene kuphela ngokuthi kweyokuqala kwakufundiswa abafundela ubudokotela kanti kweyesibili kufundiswa ababelethisi. Pho, yini eyayibangela umehluko ongaka enanini lababefa? Ezama ukuphendula lowo mbuzo, uSemmelweis wahlola ngakunye kwalokho okwakungase kube yimbangela yalesi sifo, kodwa lutho ukuyithola imbangela yangempela.

Ngasekuqaleni kuka-1847, uSemmelweis waphawula into eyaba usizo. Uzakwabo ongumngane wakhe, uJakob Kolletschka, wayebulawe ukungenwa ushevu egazini ngemva kokulimala ehlinza isidumbu. Lapho efunda umbiko wokuhlinzwa kwesidumbu sikaKolletschka, uSemmelweis waphawula ukuthi izinto ezazitholakele zazifana ngandlela-thile nalokho okwakuthokale ezidunjini zababebulawe i-childbed fever. Ngakho, uSemmelweis wacabanga ukuthi mhlawumbe lokho ayekubiza ngokuthi “ushevu” ophuma ezidunjini kwakugulisa omama abakhulelwe,  kubangele i-childbed fever. Odokotela nabafundela ubudokotela, ababevame ukuhlinza izidumbu ngaphambi kokungena egunjini labazobeletha, bengahlosile babeletha lesi sifo komama abakhulelwe lapho bebahlola nalapho bebabelethisa! Egunjini lesibili, inani lababefa laliphansi ngenxa yokuthi abafundela ukubelethisa babengazihlinzi izidumbu.

Ngokushesha uSemmelweis wabeka umthetho oqinile wokuba kugezwe izandla, okwakuhlanganisa nokuzifaka emanzini anesibulali-magciwane, ngaphambi kokuqala ukuhlola omama abakhulelwe. Izinto zashintsha kakhulu: inani lababefa lehla lisuka emaphesentini angu-18,27 ngo-April laya kwangu-0,19 ekupheleni konyaka.

“Umgomo wemfundiso yami ukuqeda isibhicongo sasezibhedlela zokubelethisa, ukusindisela umyeni umkakhe nengane unina.”—U-Ignaz Semmelweis

Akubona bonke abayijabulela impumelelo kaSemmelweis. Imiphumela ayithola yayingqubuzana nezinkolelo zomphathi wakhe mayelana ne-childbed fever futhi ukuphikelela kukaSemmelweis ukuba kwenziwe izinto ezithile kwakumcasula umphathi wakhe. Ekugcineni uSemmelweis waphelelwa umsebenzi eVienna wayesephindela eHungary. Lapho, waphathiswa umnyango wabazobeletha eSibhedlela SaseSt. Rochus ePest futhi indlela ayenza ngayo izinto yehlisa inani lababebulawa i-childbed fever laba ngaphansi kwephesenti elilodwa.

Ngo-1861, uSemmelweis wanyathelisa incwadi yakhe ethi, The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever. Ngeshwa, ukubaluleka kwalokho ayekutholile akuzange kusheshe kuqashelwe kwaze kwaba ngemva kweminyaka ethile. Phakathi naleso sikhathi, ngokudabukisayo kwafa abantu abaningi ababengasinda.

USemmelweis wakhuthaza ukugezwa kwezandla ezikhungweni zokwelapha ezaziqondiswa nguye.—Isithombe sadwetshwa nguRobert Thom

USemmelweis wagcina esebhekwa njengomunye wabantu abacaba indlela kwezokubulawa kwamagciwane namuhla. Ucwaningo lwakhe lwasiza ekufakazeleni ukuthi amagciwane angabonakali ngamehlo angabangela izifo. Uyingxenye yomlando emfundisweni yokuthi izifo ezithile zibangelwa amagciwane, eye yachazwa ‘njengeyaba negalelo elikhulu kakhulu kuyisayensi nezindlela zokwelapha.’ Empeleni, eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-3 000 ngaphambili, uMthetho KaMose, kamuva owafakwa eBhayibhelini, wawususinikezile kakade isiqondiso esinengqondo mayelana nalokho okufanele kwenziwe ngemva kokuthinta isidumbu.