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OFakazi BakaJehova

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INqabayokulinda  |  No. 6 2016

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Wayefuna Ukuba Abantu Abavamile Balazi IZwi LikaNkulunkulu

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Wayefuna Ukuba Abantu Abavamile Balazi IZwi LikaNkulunkulu

NGESONTO ekuseni ngasekuqaleni kwawo-1520, izakhamuzi zaseMeaux, idolobhana langaseParis, azikukholwanga ezakuzwa esontweni. Zazilalele amaVangeli efundwa ngolimi ezaluncela—isiFulentshi hhayi isiLatini!

Kamuva umhumushi weBhayibheli owayegqugquzela lokhu, uJacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (ngesiLatini, uJacobus Faber Stapulensis), wabhalela umngane wakhe omkhulu: “Ngeke uyicabange indlela uNkulunkulu ashukumisa ngentshiseko ngayo izingqondo [zabantu] abavamile kwezinye izindawo ukuba bamukele iZwi lakhe.”

Ngaleso sikhathi, iSonto LamaKatolika nezazi zemfundiso yenkolo eParis zaziphikisana nokusetshenziswa kweBhayibheli elihunyushelwe ezilimini ezivamile. Pho, yini eyenza uLefèvre wahumushela iBhayibheli esiFulentshini? Futhi wakwazi kanjani ukusiza abantu abavamile ukuba baliqonde iZwi likaNkulunkulu?

WAYEFUNA INCAZELO ENEMBILE YEMIBHALO

Ngaphambi kokuba abe umhumushi weBhayibheli, uLefèvre wayezinikele ekubuyiseleni incazelo yokuqala yezincwadi zakudala zefilosofi nezemfundiso yenkolo. Waphawula ukuthi ezimweni eziningi, izincwadi zasendulo zase zinamakhulu eminyaka zonakaliswa yizindlela zokuhumusha ezidukisayo namaphutha. Njengoba ayefuna incazelo enembile yemibhalo yasendulo, waqala ukutadisha ngokucophelela iBhayibheli elivamile leSonto LamaKatolika, i-Vulgate yesiLatini.

Ukutadisha kwakhe imiBhalo ngenkuthalo kwamenza waphetha ngokuthi “ukutadisha iqiniso elingokwaphezulu kukodwa kunganikeza . . . injabulo ezidlula zonke.” Ngakho-ke, uLefèvre wayeka ukutadisha ifilosofi wasebenzisa wonke amandla akhe ekuhumusheni iBhayibheli.

Ngo-1509, uLefèvre wanyathelisa incwadi eqhathanisa izinguqulo zesiLatini ezinhlanu ezihlukahlukene zamaHubo, * kuhlanganise neyakhe eyayilungisa i-Vulgate. Ngokungafani nezazi zemfundiso yenkolo zesikhathi sakhe, wayezama ukuthola indlela engokwemvelo yokuhumusha izindima zeBhayibheli. Indlela yakhe yokuthola incazelo yemiBhalo yaba nethonya elikhulu kwezinye izazi zeBhayibheli nabashisekeli bezinguquko.—Bheka ibhokisi elithi “ Indlela UMartin Luther Athonywa Ngayo ULefèvre.

ULefèvre, umKatolika ngokuzalwa, wayeqiniseka ukuthi isonto lalingavuselelwa kuphela uma abantu abavamile bengafundiswa imiBhalo kahle. Kodwa babengazuza kanjani emiBhalweni njengoba ingxenye enkulu yaleyo miBhalo engcwele yayiseyisiLatini?

INGUQULO YEBHAYIBHELI ETHOLAKALA KUBO BONKE

Uthando olujulile lukaLefèvre ngeZwi likaNkulunkulu lwamenza wazimisela ukulenza litholakale kubantu abaningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuze afinyelele lowo mgomo, ngo-June 1523, wanyathelisa inguqulo yesiFulentshi yamaVangeli eyizincwadi ezimbili ezingangena ephaketheni. Ukuba ncane kwale nguqulo—eyayibiza uhhafu wenani lenguqulo  evamile—kwenza kwaba lula kubantu abangacebile ukuzitholela ikhophi yeBhayibheli.

Abantu abavamile bayithakasela ngokushesha. Kokubili abesilisa nabesifazane babemagange ukufunda amazwi kaJesu ngolimi abaluncela kangangokuthi ngezinyangana nje amakhophi okuqala angu-1 200 ayenyathelisiwe ayesephelile.

WALIMELELA NGESIBINDI IBHAYIBHELI

Esethulweni samaVangeli, uLefèvre wachaza ukuthi wayewahumushele esiFulentshini ukuze “amalungu avamile” esonto “akwazi ukuqiniseka ngamaqiniso asemavangelini njengalabo abanawo ngesiLatini.” Kodwa kungani uLefèvre ayemagange kangaka ukusiza abantu abavamile ukuba babuyele kulokho iBhayibheli elikufundisayo?

ULefèvre wayazi kahle ukuthi izimfundiso namafilosofi abantu kwakulonakalisile iSonto LamaKatolika. (Marku 7:7; Kolose 2:8) Futhi wayeqiniseka ukuthi kwase kufike isikhathi sokuba amaVangeli “amenyezelwe enjengoba enjalo kulo lonke izwe, ukuze abantu bangabe besadukiswa izimfundiso zabantu ezingaziwa.”

ULefèvre wazama nokudalula ukucabanga okuyiphutha kwalabo ababephikisana nokuhunyushelwa kweBhayibheli esiFulentshini. Wabugxeka ubuzenzisi babo, wathi: “Bazobafundisa kanjani [abantu] ukugcina konke uJesu Kristu abayala ngakho, uma bengafuni ukuba abantu abavamile babone futhi bafunde iVangeli likaNkulunkulu ngolimi lwabo?”—Roma 10:14.

 Akumangalisi ukuthi kungakabiphi izazi zemfundiso yenkolo zase-University of Paris—iSorbonne—zazama ukumvala umlomo uLefèvre. Ngo-August 1523, zaphikisana nokwenziwa kwezinguqulo zezilimi ezivamile zeBhayibheli nokwezincwadi ezilichazayo, zikubheka “njengokucekela phansi iSonto.” Ukube kwakungengenxa yokungenela kwenkosi yaseFrance, uFrancis I, uLefèvre ngabe walahlwa njengesihlubuki.

UMHUMUSHI “OTHULAYO” UQEDA UMSEBENZI WAKHE

ULefèvre akazivumelanga izimpikiswano ezishubile ngomsebenzi wakhe ukuba zimphazamise ekuhumusheni iBhayibheli. Ngo-1524, ngemva kokuphothula inguqulo yakhe yemiBhalo YesiGreki (eye ibizwe ngokuthi iTestamente Elisha), wakhulula inguqulo yesiFulentshi yamaHubo ukuze amakholwa akwazi ukuthandaza “ngokuzinikela okwengeziwe nangomuzwa ojule kakhudlwana.”

Izazi zemfundiso yenkolo zaseSorbonne azipholisanga maseko, zacubungula izinguqulo zikaLefèvre. Ngokushesha zayala ukuba inguqulo yakhe yemiBhalo YesiGreki ishiswe phambi kwabantu, zagxeka nezinye izincwadi zithi “zivuna ukuhlubuka kukaLuther.” Lapho lezi zazi zithi makeze azochaza izizathu zemibono yakhe, uLefèvre wanquma “ukuthula,” wabalekela eStrasbourg. Lapho, waqhubeka nokuhumusha iBhayibheli ngokuqapha. Nakuba abanye babebheka ukwenza kwakhe njengobugwala, wayekholelwa ukuthi kwakuyiyona nto engcono kakhulu ayengayenza kulabo ababengawazisi “amaparele” eqiniso leBhayibheli.—Mathewu 7:6.

Cishe ngemva konyaka ebalekile, iNkosi uFrancis I yambeka njengothisha wendodana yayo eneminyaka emine, uCharles. Lesi sabelo sanika uLefèvre isikhathi esiningi sokuba aqedele inguqulo yakhe yeBhayibheli. Ngo-1530, inguqulo yakhe yeBhayibheli eliphelele yanyatheliswa ngaphandle kweFrance, e-Antwerp, igunyazwe uMbusi uCharles V. *

AMATHEMBA AMAKHULU NOKUDABUKA EKUGCINENI

Kukho konke ukuphila kwakhe, uLefèvre wayenethemba lokuthi isonto lalizowayeka amasiko abantu libuyele olwazini oluhlanzekile lwemiBhalo. Wayekholelwa ngokuqinile ukuthi “umKristu ngamunye unelungelo, empeleni, unesibopho sokuzifundela iBhayibheli futhi alazi.” Yingakho azikhandla kangaka ukuze enze iBhayibheli litholakale kuwo wonke umuntu. Nakuba isifiso sakhe sokubona isonto liguquka singafezekanga, uLefèvre wayibeka induku ebandla—wasiza abantu abavamile ukuba balazi iZwi likaNkulunkulu.

^ isig. 8 I-Fivefold Psalter yayinezinhlu ezihlukene zezinguqulo ezinhlanu zamaHubo nohlu lweziqu ezisetshenziswa kuNkulunkulu, kuhlanganise neTetragrammaton, izinhlamvu ezine zesiHebheru ezimelela igama likaNkulunkulu.

^ isig. 21 Ngemva kweminyaka emihlanu, ngo-1535, umhumushi ongumFulentshi u-Olivétan, wakhulula eyakhe inguqulo yeBhayibheli esekelwe ezilimini zokuqala. Lapho ehumusha imiBhalo YesiGreki, wazisebenzisa kakhulu izinguqulo zikaLefèvre.