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INqabayokulinda  |  No. 4 2017

U-Elias Hutter NamaBhayibheli Akhe EsiHebheru Aphawulekayo

U-Elias Hutter NamaBhayibheli Akhe EsiHebheru Aphawulekayo

UYAKWAZI yini ukufunda isiHebheru okwabhalwa ngaso iBhayibheli? Cishe awukwazi. Mhlawumbe awukaze ulibone kwakulibona iBhayibheli lesiHebheru. Ungase ulithande nakakhulu iBhayibheli lakho uma ungafunda ngo-Elias Hutter namaBhayibheli amabili esiHebheru awanyathelisa.

U-Elias Hutter wazalwa ngo-1553 eGörlitz, idolobha elincane eliseduze nomngcele ohlukanisa iJalimane, iPoland neCzech Republic. UHutter wafunda izilimi zaseMpumalanga enyuvesi i-Lutheran, eJena. Lapho nje eneminyaka engu-24, waba uprofesa wesiHebheru eLeipzig. Njengoba ayeletha izinguquko kwezemfundo, wavula isikole eNuremberg abafundi ababengafunda kuso isiHebheru, isiGreki, isiLatini nesiJalimane ngeminyaka emine nje kuphela. Asikho esinye isikole noma inyuvesi eyayikwazi ukunikeza imfundo enjalo.

“UBUHLE BALELI TESTAMENTE”

Ikhasi elinesihloko seBhayibheli likaHutter lesiHebheru lango-1587

Ngo-1587, uHutter wahumusha izincwadi ezaziwa ngokuthi iTestamente Elidala ngesiHebheru. Leli Testamente lalinesihloko esithi Derekh ha-Kodesh, esithathwe ku-Isaya 35:8 esisho ukuthi “iNdlela Yobungcwele.” Izinhlamvu zamagama azisebenzisa zazizinhle kakhulu kangangokuthi othile owathi “konke kubonisa ubuhle baleli Testamente.” Kodwa into eyenza leli Bhayibheli laphawuleka kakhulu kwakuwukuthi laliyithuluzi elihle abafundi ababengalisebenzisa ukuze bafunde isiHebheru.

Ukuze uqonde ukuthi kungani iBhayibheli lesiHebheru likaHutter laliwusizo kangaka, cabanga ngezingqinamba ezimbili abafundi ababebhekana nazo lapho bezama ukufunda iBhayibheli lesiHebheru. Okokuqala, ukuthi libhalwe ngezinhlamvu ezihlukile nezingajwayelekile. Okwesibili, ukuthi iziqalo nezijobelelo zeBhayibheli lesiHebheru zenza kube nzima ukubona amabizo. Ngokwesibonelo, cabanga ngegama lesiHebheru elithi נפשׁ (noma ne’phesh) okuyibizo elithi “phefumulo.” KuHezekeli 18:4 kunesiqalo esithi ה (ha), okusho ukuthi “um- ” okube sekwakha igama elithi הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) noma “umphefumulo.” Umuntu ongawazi lo mehluko angabona igama elithi הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) lihluke kakhulu kwelithi נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Ukuze asize abafundi bakhe, uHutter wasebenzisa indlela entsha yokunyathelisa, okwakuwukubhala izinhlamvu zamagama esiHebheru ngokugqamile nangokungagqamile. Lapho ebhala igama, ibizo wayelibhala ngezinhlamvu ezigqamile. Iziqalo  nezijobelelo zona wayengazigqamisi. Le ndlela yenza kwaba lula kubafundi ukuba babone ibizo lesiHebheru, okwakuwusizo lapho befunda lolu limi. INguqulo Yezwe Elisha YemiBhalo Engcwele yesiNgisi enezikhombo isebenzisa indlela efanayo emibhalweni yaphansi. * Ibizo elihunyushiwe libhalwe ngendlela egqamile kanti iziqalo nezijobelelo zibhalwe ngendlela evamile. Indawo emhloshana ezithombeni ezingenhla ibonisa indlela yokubhala eyasetshenziswa uHutter eBhayibhelini alihumusha ngesiHebheru kuHezekeli 18:4 naleyo esetshenziwa iNguqulo Yezwe Elisha YemiBhalo Engcwele yesiNgisi enezikhombo embhalweni ofanayo.

INGUQULO YESIHEBHERU ‘YETESTAMENTE ELISHA’

UHutter waphinde wanyathelisa izincwadi ezaziwa ngokuthi yiTestamente Elisha ngezilimi ezingu-12. Leli Testamente lanyatheliswa eNuremberg ngo-1599 futhi livame ukubizwa ngokuthi iNuremberg Polyglot. UHutter wayefuna nokufaka imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki ngolimi lwesiHebheru kulo. Kodwa wathi noma “ngabe ubefuna ukukhokha imali eshisiwe” ukuze athole inguqulo yesiHebheru wayengeke ayithole. * Ngakho wanquma ukuhumusha iTestamente Elisha elisusa olimini lwesiGreki eliyisa olimini lwesiHebheru. UHutter wayeka yonke eminye imisebenzi walihumusha waliqeda ngonyaka owodwa!

Inguqulo kaHutter yemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki ayihumushela olimini lwesiHebheru yayiyinhle kangakanani? Ngo-1891, isifundiswa esidumile uFranz Delitzsch esasazi isiHebheru sabhala lokhu: “Inguqulo yakhe yesiHebheru ibonisa ukuthi uluqonda kahle ulimi ngokungafani namanye amaKristu futhi iwusizo olukhulu ngoba wayezama ngawo wonke amandla ukuthi abeke izinto ngendlela efanele.”

WAYIBEKA INDUKU EBANDLA

Ukuhumusha akumenzanga uHutter waceba; izinguqulo zakhe azizange zidayiswe kangako. Noma kunjalo, wayibeka induku ebandla. Ngokwesibonelo, iTestamente Elisha alihumushela olimini lwesiHebheru laphinde labukezwa futhi lanyatheliswa uWilliam Robertson ngo-1661 noRichard Caddick ngo-1798. Ehumusha esusela olimini lwesiGreki, uHutter walihumusha kahle igama elithi Kyʹri·os (Nkosi) nelithi The·osʹ (Nkulunkulu) ngokuthi “Jehova” (יהוה, JHVH) lapho umbhalo uyingcaphuno ethathwe emiBhalweni yesiHebheru noma lapho ayebona ukuthi kukhulunywa ngoJehova. Lokhu kuyathakazelisa ngoba izinguqulo eziningi zeTestamente Elisha azinalo igama likaNkulunkulu kodwa izinguqulo zikaHutter zona zinalo futhi zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi kufanele libuyiselwe igama likaNkulunkulu emiBhalweni yamaKristu yesiGreki.

Ngokulandelayo lapho ubona igama likaNkulunkulu elithi Jehova emiBhalweni yamaKristu yesiGreki noma lapho ufunda umBhalo waphansi kuyi-Nguqulo Yezwe Elisha YemiBhalo Engcwele yesiNgisi enezikhombo ubokhumbula umsebenzi owenziwa uHutter namaBhayibheli akhe esiHebheru angasoze alibaleka.

^ isig. 7 Bheka umbhalo waphansi wesibili kuHezekeli 18:4 neSithasiselo 3B kuyi-Nguqulo Yezwe Elisha YemiBhalo Engcwele yesiNgisi enezikhombo.

^ isig. 9 Kubonakala sengathi izifundiswa zazike zalihumusha iTestamente Elisha ngolimi lwesiHebheru. Esinye salezo zifundiswa kwakuyindela elingumByzantine, uSimon Atoumanos cishe ngo-1360. Esinye kwakungu-Oswald Schreckenfuchs waseJalimane cishe ngo-1565. Lokho abakuhumusha akuzange kunyatheliswe futhi sekwalahleka.