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Izahluko Namavesi—Kwafakwa Ubani EBhayibhelini?

Izahluko Namavesi—Kwafakwa Ubani EBhayibhelini?

AKE sithi ungumKristu ophila ngekhulu lokuqala leminyaka. Ibandla okulo lisanda kuthola incwadi evela kumphostoli uPawulu. Njengoba ifundwa, uphawula ukuthi uPawulu ucaphuna kaningi ‘emiBhalweni engcwele,’ okungukuthi imiBhalo yesiHebheru. (2 Thimothewu 3:15) Njengoba ulalele, ufisa ukuyibona indawo acaphuna kuyo. Kodwa lokho kwakungaba nzima kakhulu. Kungani?

AZIKHO IZAHLUKO NAMAVESI

Cabanga ukuthi wawubukeka kanjani umbhalo wesandla ‘wemiBhalo engcwele’ owawukhona ngosuku lukaPawulu. Omunye uboniswe lapha—isiqeshana sencwadi ka-Isaya esatholwa emiQulwini YasoLwandle Olufile. Ubonani? Amagama ahlangane. Azikho izimpawu zenkulumo. Azikho izahluko namavesi esikusebenzisa namuhla.

Abalobi beBhayibheli abazange bakuhlukanise ababekuloba kwaba izahluko namavesi. Babeloba konke uNkulunkulu ayebatshela kona ukuze abafundi bawuthole uphelele umyalezo, bangafundi nje izingxenyana zawo. Yilokho kanye okufunayo encwadini ebalulekile evela kumuntu omthandayo. Leyo ncwadi uyifunda yonke, hhayi nje izingxenyana zayo.

Nokho, ukungabibikho kwezahluko namavesi kwayibangela inkinga. Ukuze achaze ukuthi ucaphuna kuphi, uPawulu wayethi “njengoba nje kulotshiwe” noma “njengoba nje u-Isaya ayeshilo esikhathini esingaphambili.” (Roma 3:10; 9:29) Kwakuyoba nzima ukuthola indawo okucashunwe kuyo lawo mazwi ngaphandle uma ujwayelene kakhulu nayo yonke “imiBhalo engcwele.”

Ngaphezu kwalokho, leyo “miBhalo engcwele” yayingewona nje umyalezo olula ovela kuNkulunkulu. Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lokuqala C.E., yayakhiwa izincwadi ezingu-66 ezihlukahlukene! Yingakho abafundi abaningi beBhayibheli bekujabulela ukuba nezahluko namavesi okubasiza bathole imininingwane abayifunayo, njengezingcaphuno eziningi ezincwadini zikaPawulu.

Ngakho ungase uzibuze, ‘ubani owafaka izahluko namavesi eBhayibhelini?’

UBANI OWAFAKA IZAHLUKO?

Umfundisi waseNgilandi uStephen Langton, owaba umbhishobhi omkhulu waseCanterbury kuthiwa nguye owafaka amavesi ahlukanisayo eBhayibhelini. Lokhu wakwenza ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-13 C.E ngesikhathi enguthisha e-University of Paris eFrance.

Ngaphambi kosuku lukaLangton izazi bezilokhu zizama izindlela ezihlukahlukene zokuhlukanisa iBhayibheli libe izingxenye ezincane noma izahluko, ukuze zikwazi ukuba nezikhombo. Ungase ucabange indlela obekuyoba lula ngayo ukuthola ingxenye oyifunayo uma uyifuna esahlukweni esisodwa kunokuba uyibheke encwadini yonke, njengasencwadini ka-Isaya enezahluko ezingu-66.

Nokho, konke lokho kwadala inkinga. Izazi zasungula izindlela eziningi ezingafani zokuhlukanisa. Kusetshenziswa enye indlela, iVangeli likaMarku lahlukaniswa cishe laba izahluko ezingaba ngu-50, hhayi izahluko ezingu-16 esizisebenzisa namuhla. Ngosuku lukaLangton, eParis kwakukhona abafundi abavela emazweni amaningi futhi beza namaBhayibheli avela  emazweni abazalwa kuwo. Nokho, kwakunzima ngothisha nabafundi ukwabelana izikhombo. Kungani? Kungenxa yokuthi izahluko zazihlukaniswe ngendlela engafani.

Ngakho uLangton wasungula indlela entsha yokuhlukanisa ngezahluko. I-The Book—A History of the Bible ithi le ndlela “yathandeka kubafundi nababhali futhi ngokushesha yasabalala eYurophu.” Wasinika izahluko ezinezinombolo ezisetshenziswa emaBhayibhelini amaningi namuhla.

UBANI OWAFAKA AMAVESI?

Ngemva kweminyaka engu-300, phakathi nekhulu le-16 leminyaka, isazi esaziwayo saseFrance, uRobert Estienne, senza izinto zaba lula nakakhulu. Injongo yakhe kwakuwukugqugquzela ukutadishwa kweBhayibheli. Waqaphela ukuthi kwakuzozuzisa ukuba nendlela yokuhlukanisa imiBhalo ngezahluko kanye namavesi anezinombolo.

Akuyena u-Estienne owasungula indlela yokuhlukanisa imiBhalo yeBhayibheli ngamavesi. Bakhona abase bekwenzile kakade lokho. Ngokwesibonelo, emakhulwini eminyaka ngaphambili, umkopishi ongumJuda wahlukanisa lonke iBhayibheli lesiHebheru noma ingxenye eyaziwa ngokuthi iTestamente Elidala laba amavesi kodwa akalihlukanisanga ngokwezahluko. Nakulokhu, njengasekusungulweni kwezahluko, kwakusetshenziswa izindlela ezingafani.

U-Estienne wahlukanisa ImiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki, noma lokho okubizwa ngokuthi iTestamente Elisha, yaba amavesi ayehlelwe kabusha futhi wawahlanganisa nalawo ayekhona kakade eBhayibhelini lesiHebheru. Ngo-1553, wanyathelisa iBhayibheli lokuqala eliphelele (ngolimi lwesiFrench) elalinezahluko namavesi, elifana namaBhayibheli amaningi akhona namuhla. Abanye abantu babekugxeka lokho, bethi amavesi ahlukanisa umBhalo weBhayibheli ube yizingxenyana, okwenza iBhayibheli libonakale liyimisho eminingi engahlangani. Kodwa le ndlela yokuhlukanisa yasheshe yasetshenziswa abanye abanyathelisi.

ABAFUNDI BEBHAYIBHELI BATHOLA INDLELA ELULA

Kubonakala kuyisu elilula—izahluko namavesi anezinombolo. Lokhu kunika ivesi ngalinye eBhayibhelini “ikheli” elikhethekile. Kuyiqiniso uthi ukwahlukanisa imiBhalo ngezahluko namavesi akuphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu futhi ngezinye izikhathi imiBhalo ihlukana kabi. Kodwa kwenza kube lula ngathi ukuthola izingcaphuno, ukudwebela nokuhlanganyela amavesi esiwathandayo nabanye—njengoba siyaye sidwebele amagama noma inkulumo ethile esifuna ukuyikhumbula ephepheni noma encwadini esiyifundayo.

Nakuba kuzuzisa ukuba iBhayibheli lihlukaniswe libe izahluko namavesi, kumelwe sikhumbule njalo ukuthi kubalulekile ukuqonda umyalezo weBhayibheli lilonke. Zifundise ukufunda indaba yonke kunokufunda amavesi athile kuphela. Ukwenza kanjalo kuyokusiza ujwayelane ngokwengeziwe nayo yonke “imibhalo engcwele, ekwazi ukukuhlakaniphisela insindiso.”—2 Thimothewu 3:15.