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Phaphama!  |  September 2015

 EZASENDULO

UHerodotus

UHerodotus

KWAKUNJANI ukuphila eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane edlule? Abantu babegcina maphi amasiko? Imivubukulo ingasinikeza ezinye zezimpendulo—kodwa hhayi zonke. Ukuze siqonde indlela abantu basendulo ababecabanga ngayo, kungasisiza ukuba nokuthile okwalotshwa umuntu owabhala ngomlando wezwe langesikhathi sakhe. Umuntu onjalo waphila eminyakeni engaba ngu-2 400 edlule. Igama lakhe kwakunguHerodotus, wayeyisazi-mlando esingumGreki sangekhulu lesihlanu B.C.E. Sasithini isihloko somsebenzi wakhe? Sasithi The Histories.

UHerodotus wabhala ngezimbangela zezimpi ezalwiwa amaGreki ikakhulukazi izimbangela zokuhlasela kwePheresiya ngo-490 B.C.E., nangesikhathi uHerodotus esengumfana ngo-480 B.C.E. Ekulandiseni kwakhe wabhala nangezinye izinto eziseceleni, wabhala ngakho konke ayengakuthola ngesizwe ngasinye esasithintwa ukuhlasela kwePheresiya.

KWAKUNGAPHEZU NJE KOMLANDO

UHerodotus wayenekhono lokulandisa. Wayecophelela lapho ebhala, ehlanganisa yonke imininingwane ayecabanga ukuthi yayidingeka ukuze indaba iphelele. Impumelelo kaHerodotus iphawuleka ngokukhethekile ngenxa yokuthi umsebenzi wakhe akawusekelanga emibhalweni egciniwe yoMbuso eyayiphathelene nezenzakalo zomlando eziqhubekayo ezazigciniwe, ngoba kungenzeka izinto ezikuleyo mibhalo azikaze zenzeke.

Ngaleso sikhathi, bambalwa ababezihlupha ngokubhala umlando, ngaphandle uma befuna ukuqhosha ngokuthi izenzo zabo zilotshwe ematsheni ayisikhumbuzo. Kwadingeka ukuthi uHerodotus ancike ezintweni ayezibona, emasikweni akudala, nasebufakazini babanye ngokuphathelene nezenzakalo ayefisa ukubhala ngazo. Ukuze aqoqe lokhu kwaziswa, wayeya ezindaweni ezikude. Wakhulela kuyikoloni yamaGreki iHalicarnassus (manje ebizwa ngeBodrum, eseningizimu yeTurkey) futhi wavakasha ezindaweni eziningi eGrisi.

Ukuze aqoqe imininingwane yakhe, uHerodotus waya ezindaweni ezikude

 Wabhekisa amabombo enyakatho oLwandle Olumnyama naseScythia, endaweni manje ebizwa nge-Ukraine, eningizimu waya ePalestina naseNhla neGibhithe. Kubukeka sengathi wafika naseBhabhiloni ngesikhathi ebheke empumalanga, kungenzeka ukuthi uhambo lwakhe lwaphelela entshonalanga, kuyikoloni yamaGreki manje eyaziwa njengeningizimu ye-Italy. Nomaphi lapho ayeya khona, wayephawula izinto futhi ebuza, kanjalo eqoqa imininingwane kulabo ayebabona beyimithombo ethembeke kakhudlwana.

UKUNEMBA KUKAHERODOTUS

Isiqeshana se-Papyrus sencwadi i-The Histories

Kunembe kangakanani ukwaziswa uHerodotus akubhala? Ngokuphathelene nezindawo avakashela kuzo, nezinto azibona ngawakhe, ulwazi lwakhe lubhekwa njengolunembile. Indlela achaza ngayo amasiko ayengaziwa eGrisi—njengalawo ayenziwa lapho kungcwatshwa abasebukhosini abangamaScythia nalapho komiswa izidumbu eGibhithe—iyafana ngandlela thile nalokho abavubukuli abaye bakuthola. Kuye kwathiwa ukwaziswa okucebile aye akugcina ngokuphathelene neGibhithe, “kukudlula kude ngokubaluleka konke okwabhalwa endulo ngalelo zwe.”

Nokho, ezikhathini eziningi kwakungekho uHerodotus ayengakwenza ngaphandle kokuthembela ebufakazini obungabazisayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abantu bosuku lwakhe babekholelwa ekungeneleni konkulunkulu bamaqaba ekuphileni kwabantu. Ngakho, akukona konke akubhala okuhambisana nezindinganiso zezazi-mlando zanamuhla. Nakuba kunjalo, uHerodotus wazama ukuhlukanisa iqiniso ezinganekwaneni. Washo ukuthi wayengakukholwa konke ayekutsheliwe. Wafinyelela kwezakhe iziphetho ngemva kokuhlunga nokuqhathanisa imithombo yakhe.

I-The Histories iqukethe umsebenzi kaHerodotus. Wenza umsebenzi omuhle kakhulu uma kucatshangelwa imithombo ayenayo.