NGO-1953, izazi zesayensi yamangqamuzana uJames Watson noFrancis Crick zanyathelisa okuthile ezazikutholile, okubaluleke kakhulu ekuqondeni kwethu okungokwesayensi ukuphila. Zazithole i-DNA, emise okwemicu emibili ethandelene. * Le micu, evame ukutholakala kuyi-nucleus yamangqamuzana, inokwaziswa okulotshiwe, noma “okubhaliwe” okwenza amangqamuzana kube sengathi ayimitapo ephilayo. Lesi simanga esatholakala, saqala inkathi entsha kuyisayensi yezinto eziphilayo!  Kodwa kufezani ukwaziswa “okubhalwe” emangqamuzaneni? Okuthakazelisa nakakhulu, ukuthi kwaba khona kanjani?

OKWENZA AMANGQAMUZANA ADINGE UKUBA NEMINININGWANE

Wake wazibuza yini ukuthi kwenzeka kanjani ukuba imbewu ibe isihlahla, noma iqanda elihlangene nesidoda libe umuntu? Wake wazibuza yini ukuthi izici zakho zofuzo wazithola kanjani? Impendulo yaleyo mibuzo incike ekwazisweni okutholakala kuyi-DNA.

Cishe wonke amangqamuzana ane-DNA, izinhlayiyana eziyinkimbinkimbi ezifana neladi elide elisontekile. Ezakhini zofuzo zomuntu, noma iqoqo lethu eliphelele le-DNA, iladi licishe libe “namabhaxa” amakhemikhali acishe abe izigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezintathu. Ososayensi babiza la mabhaxa ngamabhangqa ayisisekelo ngenxa yokuthi ibhaxa ngalinye, lakhiwe amakhemikhali amabili, kodwa mane uma esephelele. Kusetshenziswa uhlamvu lokuqala lwegama ngalinye, la makhemikhali afushaniswa ngokuthi u-A, C, G no-T​—izinhlamvu ezine ezilula. * Ngo-1957, uCrick wasikisela ukuthi ukulandelana kwamabhaxa amakhemikhali ngendlela ehlelekile okwenza kube neziyalezo ezilotshiwe. Ngawo-1960, lezo ziyalezo zaqala ukuqondwa.

Ukwaziswa, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kuyizithombe, imisindo, noma amazwi, kungagcinwa noma kusetshenziswe ngezindlela eziningi. Ngokwesibonelo, ama-computer enza konke lokhu ngendlela yobuchwepheshe. Amangqamuzana aphilayo wona agcina aphinde asebenzise ukwaziswa ngamakhemikhali, i-DNA ifeza indima eyinhloko. I-DNA idluliselwa lapho amangqamuzana ehlukana nalapho izinto eziphilayo zizalana​—okungamakhono abhekwa njengezimpawu eziyinhloko zokuphila.

Amangqamuzana ayisebenzisa kanjani imininingwane? Cabanga nge-DNA njengenhlanganisela yeziyalezo, isiyalezo ngasinye sichaza  inqubo yokwenza izinto ngokulandelana kwazo, ngakunye okudingeka kwenziwe kubhalwe ngokucacile. Kodwa esikhundleni sokuthi ekugcineni kwenzeke ikhekhe, kungase kube iklabishi noma inkomo. Emangqamuzaneni aphilayo, lezi zinqubo zizenzakalela ngokuphelele, okuwenza abe yinkimbinkimbi nakakhulu.

Imininingwane esengqamuzaneni lebhaktheriya ingagcwala incwadi enamakhasi ayinkulungwane

Imininingwane yofuzo iyagcinwa kuze kube yilapho idingeka, mhlawumbe ngenjongo yokufaka amangqamuzana amasha anempilo esikhundleni sagugile noma agulayo, noma ukuze idlulisele ufuzo. Igcina ukwaziswa okungakanani i-DNA? Cabanga ngezilwanyana ezincane, amabhaktheriya. Usosayensi ongumJalimane uBernd-Olaf Küppers wathi: “Uma ingabhalwa ngolimi lwabantu, imininingwane ebhalwe ngolimi lwamakhemikhali, echaza ukwakheka kwengqamuzana lebhaktheriya, ingagcwala incwadi enamakhasi ayinkulungwane.” Ngesizathu esihle, uprofesa wesayensi yokuthakwa kwamakhemikhali wabhala: “Iyakhexisa indlela ngisho nezinto ezincane eziphilayo ezingaba inkimbinkimbi ngayo.” Kungakanani ukwaziswa kwezakhi zofuzo zomuntu? “Kungagcwala umtapo onezinkulungwane eziningi zemiqulu,” kusho uKüppers.

“IBHALWE NGENDLELA ESINGAYIQONDA”

UKüppers uthi, ukuchaza imibhalo ekuyi-DNA “njengolimi lwezinhlayiyana zofuzo” akugcini “nje ngokuba isingathekiso.” Uyenezela, “Njengolimi lwabantu, ulimi lwezinhlayiyana zofuzo nalo luhlelwe kahle.” Kalula nje, i-DNA “inemithetho yolimi,” elawula ngokuqondile indlela iziyalezo zayo ezenziwa futhi zinakekelwe ngayo.

Kuyi-DNA, “amagama nemisho” kwakha “iziqondiso” ezehlukahlukene eziqondisa ukukhiqizwa kwamaprotheni, nezinye izinto eziyisisekelo ekwakhekeni kwamangqamuzana ehlukahlukene akha umzimba. Ngokwesibonelo, “iziqondiso” zingase zilawule ukukhiqizwa kwamangqamuzana amathambo, ezicubu, ezinzwa, noma esikhumba. Isazi sokuziphendukela kwemvelo uMtt Ridley sithi, “Umucu we-DNA uyimininingwane, umyalezo obhalwe ngekhodi engamakhemikhali, ikhemikhali ngayinye imelela uhlamvu oluthile. Nakuba kubonakala kungenakwenzeka, kodwa leyo khodi ibhalwe ngendlela esingayiqonda.”

Umlobi weBhayibheli uDavide wathandaza kuNkulunkulu, “Amehlo akho abona ngisho nombungu wami, futhi zonke izingxenye zawo  zazilotshiwe phansi encwadini yakho.” (IHubo 139:16) Yiqiniso, uDavide wayesebenzisa ulimi olusankondlo. Noma kunjalo, wayeyihlabe esikhonkosini, okuyinto evamile ngabalobi beBhayibheli. Akekho kubo owayethonywe ngisho nakancane ngamasiko noma izinganekwane zabanye abantu basendulo.​—2 Samuweli 23:​1, 2; 2 Thimothewu 3:16.

Ingane iluthola kanjani ufuzo kubazali?

YABHALEKA KANJANI LEYO MINININGWANE?

Njengoba kuvame ukwenzeka, lapho ososayensi bechaza impicabadala ethile, kuvela enye. Yilokho okwenzeka lapho kutholakala i-DNA. Lapho sekuqondwa ukuthi i-DNA iqukethe imininingwane ebhaleke ngokuyimfihlo, abantu abacabangisisayo babuza, ‘Yabhaleka kanjani leyo mininingwane?’ Yiqiniso, akekho umuntu owabona lapho kwakheka inhlayiyana yokuqala ye-DNA. Ngakho kudingeka sifinyelele kwezethu iziphetho. Noma kunjalo, akudingeki ukuba siqagele. Cabanga ngalokhu okulandelayo.

  • Ngo-1999, kwatholakala izingcezu zezitsha zobumba ezinemidwebo noma izimpawu ezingavamile ePakistan. Kuze kube namuhla lezo zimpawu azikaziwa. Noma kunjalo, kucatshangwa ukuthi zenziwa othile.

  • Ngemva kweminyaka embalwa uWatson noCrick bethole ukwakheka kwe-DNA, izazi ezimbili zesayensi yemvelo zahlongoza ukucwaninga ngamaza omsakazo avela emkhathini aqukethe imiyalezo eyimfihlo. Kwaqala kanjalo-ke ukufunwa kokuphila kwamanye amaplanethi okusaqhubeka nanamuhla.

Liyini iphuzu? Abantu bahlobanisa imininingwane nokuhlakanipha, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi leyo mininingwane iyizimpawu ezisezitsheni zobumba noma ezisemkhathini. Abadingi ukuthi baze babone leyo mininingwane iqoshwa ukuze bafinyelele kulezo ziphetho. Noma kunjalo, lapho kutholakala ikhodi yamakhemikhali yokuphila, eyinkimbinkimbi kunawo wonke aziwayo​—abaningi bakushaya indiva lokho, bathi i-DNA iwumphumela wenqubo ezenzakalelayo. Ingabe lokho kunengqondo? Ingabe akukhona ukushintshashintsha? Ingabe kuyavumelana nesayensi? Ososayensi abaningi abahlonishwayo bathi cha. Udokotela uGene Hwang noProfesa uYan-Der Hsuuw bangabanye babo. Cabanga ngabakushoyo.

Udokotela uGene Hwang ucwaninga ngesisekelo sezakhi zofuzo esingokwezibalo. Wake wakholelwa ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo, kodwa ucwaningo lwakhe lwawushintsha umbono wakhe. Watshela i-Phaphama!, “Ukucwaninga ngezakhi zofuzo kwangenza ngaqonda izinqubo zokuphila​—ukuqonda okungenza ngisale ngibambe ongezansi ngokuhlakanipha koMdali.”

UProfesa Yan-Der Hsuuw ungumqondisi ocwaningweni lwemibungu eTaiwan’s National Pingtung University of Science and Technology. Naye wayekholelwa ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo​—kwaze kwaba yilapho ucwaningo lwakhe lushintsha umbono wakhe. Ngokuphathelene nokuhlukana kwamangqamuzana, wathi: “Amangqamuzana afanele kumelwe akhiqizwe  ngendlela efanele futhi endaweni efanele. Aqale ahlangane abe izicubu, nazo ezigcina zihlangana zibe izitho noma amalungu omzimba. Yimuphi unjiniyela ongakwazi ngisho nokuphupha ngokubhala iziqondiso zenqubo enjalo? Noma kunjalo, iziyalezo zokukhula kombungu zibhalwe ngobunyoninco kuyi-DNA. Uma ngicabanga ngobuhle bakho konke, ngiyaqiniseka ukuthi ukuphila kwadalwa uNkulunkulu.”

UGene Hwang (okwesobunxele) noYan-Der Hsuuw

INGABE KUNENDABA?

Ubulungisa buthi kunendaba! Uma kunguNkulunkulu owadala ukuphila, nguyena ofanelwe udumo, hhayi ukuziphendukela kwemvelo. (IsAmbulo 4:11) Futhi, uma siwumsebenzi wezandla zoMdali ohlakaniphile, silapha ngesizathu. Lokho bekungeke kwenzeke uma ukuphila bekuwumphumela wezinqubo ezingaqondiswa muntu. *

Yiqiniso, abantu abacabanga kanzulu balangazelela izimpendulo ezanelisayo. UViktor Frankl owayenguprofesa wezinzwa nokusebenza kwengqondo wathi, “Ngokuyinhloko umuntu ugqugquzelwa ukufuna injongo yokuphila.” Ukukubeka ngamanye amazwi, sinephango elingokomoya esifuna ukulanelisa​—iphango eliqondakala kuphela uma kuwukuthi sadalwa uNkulunkulu. Kodwa uma siwumsebenzi wezandla zikaNkulunkulu, ingabe wasinika indlela yokwanelisa iphango lethu elingokomoya?

UJesu Kristu waphendula lowo mbuzo ngokuthi: “Umuntu akumelwe aphile ngesinkwa sodwa, kodwa nangawo wonke amazwi aphuma emlonyeni kaJehova [noma, kaNkulunkulu].” (Mathewu 4:4) Amazwi kaJehova, alotshwe eBhayibhelini, aye anelisa iphango elingokomoya lezigidi zabantu, azinika injongo yokuphila nethemba ngekusasa. (1 Thesalonika 2:13) Kwangathi iBhayibheli lingenza okufanayo nakuwe. Le ncwadi eyingqayizivele iyakufanelekela okungenani ukuba ucabange ngayo.

^ isig. 3 UWatson noCrick bakhela emsebenzini owawenziwe abanye abacwaningi nge-DNA, okuyisifushaniso selithi deoxyribonucleic acid.​—Bheka ibhokisi elithi “I- DNA​—Iminyaka Eyingqopha-mlando.”

^ isig. 6 Izinhlamvu zimelela amagama athi adenine, cytosine, guanine, nelithi thymine.

^ isig. 22 Imibuzo ephathelene nendalo nokuziphendukela kwemvelo, kuxoxwa kabanzi ngayo encwajaneni ethi The Origin of Life​—Five Questions Worth Asking nethi Ingabe Izinto Eziphilayo Zadalwa? etholakala engosini ethi www.jw.org/zu.