NGEMVA kokubuya kukaChristopher Columbus ohambweni lwakhe lokuqala lokuya emazweni aseMelika ngo-1493, inkosi yaseSpain yaphikisana neyasePortugal ngokuthi ubani okwakufanele alawule ezohwebo nokwakhiwa kwamakoloni kula mazwe ayesanda kutholakala. AbaseSpain bacela upapa u-Alexander VI ukuba abaxazululele le nkinga.

ABABUSI NOPAPA BAHLUKANISA AMAZWEKAZI

Izwe laseSpain nelasePortugal kanye nopapa, base becabangile kakade ngendaba yokwaba amazwe amasha ayesanda kutholakala. Ngo-1455, uPapa Nicholas V wanikeza iPortugal amalungelo akhethekile okuhlola amazwe neziqhingi ezigudle ingxenye yogu lwe-Atlantic ese-Afrika nokuba izithathele noma yini eyitholayo lapho. Ngo-1479, eSivumelwaneni sase-Alcáçovas, u-Afonso V wasePortugal nendodana yakhe iNkosana uJohn, banikeza uFerdinand no-Isabella baseSpain igunya lokubusa phezu kweziQhingi zaseCanary. Ngenxa yalokho, izwe laseSpain lagunyaza ukuba iPortugal ihwebe emazweni ase-Afrika futhi ibuse iziqhingi zase-Azores, eCape Verde nezaseMadeira. Ngemva kweminyaka emibili, uPapa Sixtus IV, waphinde wasiqinisekisa lesi sivumelwano, echaza ukuthi noma imaphi amazwe amasha atholakala ngaseningizimu nangasempumalanga yeziqhingi zaseCanary ayezoba ngaphansi kwePortugal.

Nokho, uJohn manje okunguJohn II wasePortugal, wathi amazwe ayetholwe uColumbus ayewela ngaphansi kwePortugal. Ababusi baseSpain basenqaba lesi sivumelwano, futhi bafaka isikhalazo kupapa owayesanda kugcotshwa u-Alexander VI, befuna ilungelo lokwakha amakoloni nelokuguqulela abantu ebuKristwini emazweni ayetholwe uColumbus.

Ngomdwebo nje wepeni, uPapa u-Alexander VI wahlukanisa amazwekazi

Esabela kulokho, u-Alexander wenza izinqumo ezintathu. Esokuqala sasithi, “ngegunya likaNkulunkulu uMninimandla onke,” sinika iSpain igunya eliphelele nelihlala njalo lokuzithathela  izindawo ezintsha. Esesibili, sasiwukubeka umngcele osuka enyakatho uye eningizimu oyibanga elingaba amakhilomitha angu-560 uma usuka eziQhingini zaseCape Verde uya ngasentshonalanga. U-Alexander wathi, wonke amazwe ayesetholakele noma ayesazotholakala, angasentshonalanga yalowo mngcele, ayezoba ngawaseSpain. Ngomdwebo nje awenza ngepeni, lo papa wahlukanisa amazwekazi! Isinqumo sakhe sesithathu, sabonakala sinikeza izwe laseSpain igunya lokubusa ingxenye engasempumalanga kuze kuyofika kwelaseNdiya. Lokhu kwayicasula kakhulu iNkosi uJohn, emanxusa ayo ayesanda kuphothula uhambo lwawo lokuzungeza isiqongo se-Afrika, ngaleyo ndlela kwanda amathuba okuba iPortugal ihwebe ngomzila we-Indian Ocean.

UMNGCELE OMUSHA EBALAZWENI

Esecikekile ngu-Alexander, * uJohn waxoxa noFerdinand no-Isabella ngokuqondile. Umlobi uWilliam Bernstein uthi: “Ngenxa yokuthi babemesaba lo mPutukezi ononya, futhi bejatshuliswe ukuthola iZwe Elisha, laba babusi baseSpain bakujabulela kakhulu ukufinyelela esivumelwaneni esisha.” Ngakho ngo-1494, kwasayinwa isivumelwano edolobheni laseSpain iTordesillas futhi saqanjwa ngalo.

Lesi Sivumelwano SaseTordesillas sawulondoloza umngcele owawusuka enyakatho uya eningizimu owawenziwe ngu-Alexander kodwa sawuhlehlisela ngasentshonalanga ngamakhilomitha angu-1 480. Lokhu kwabonakala sengathi kwakuzokwenza yonke i-Afrika ne-Asia ibe “ngaphansi” kwePortugal, bese iZwe Elisha liba ngaphansi kweSpain. Nokho, lokhu kuhlehliswa komngcele kwenza ingxenye enkulu yezwe elalingakatholakali ngaleso sikhathi, kamuva eyaziwa ngokuthi iBrazil, yawela ngaphansi kokulawula kwePortugal.

Lezi zinqumo ezagunyaza izwe laseSpain nelasePortugal ukuba athathe futhi avikele amazwe ayesanda kutholakala, zaba isisekelo sokuchitheka okukhulu kwegazi. Lezi zinqumo azizange nje zibukele phansi amalungelo abantu ababehlala kulawo mazwe kuphela—okwabangela ukuba baphoqeleke ukuba ngaphansi kwabanqobi babo futhi baxhashazwe—kodwa futhi zadala izinxushunxushu osekungamakhulu eminyaka zikhona phakathi kwamazwe abanga ilungelo lokubusa nelenkululeko yokusebenzisa izilwandle.

^ isig. 9 Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe ngalo papa odume ngokuba nenkohlakalo, bheka isihloko esithi “U-Alexander VI—Upapa IRome Engamlibali,” kuyi-Nqabayokulinda ka-June 15, 2003, amakhasi 26-29.