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Phaphama!  |  March 2015

Umoya Ohlanzekile Nokukhanya Kwelanga—Ingabe ‘Amakhambi Emvelo Okulwa Namagciwane’?

Umoya Ohlanzekile Nokukhanya Kwelanga—Ingabe ‘Amakhambi Emvelo Okulwa Namagciwane’?

LAPHO ososayensi beqala ukuthola amakhemikhali alwa namagciwane phakathi nekhulu lama-20, odokotela babenethemba lokuthi la makhambi amasha ayezoqeda izifo ezithile. Ekuqaleni, la makhambi amasha ayebukeka ethembisa. Noma kunjalo, ukusetshenziswa kwawo kabanzi kuye kwaphumela ekwakhekeni kwamabhaktheriya amelana nemithi elwa namagciwane.

Ukuze bathole indlela entsha yokuvimbela ukubhebhetheka kwezifo, abanye ososayensi baphinde bahlola izindlela ezindala zokunqanda izifo. Enye yazo kwaba ukusebenzisa okuthile okuzuzisayo empilweni—ukukhanya kwelanga nomoya ohlanzekile.

Isifundo Kulokho Okwenzeka Endulo

INgilandi yayinabantu abaningi ababetusa amandla okwelapha elanga nomoya ohlanzekile. Udokotela uJohn Lettsom (1744-1815) wayala ukuba izingane ezinesifo sofuba zithole ukukhanya kwelanga nomoya wasolwandle. Ngo-1840, udokotela ohlinzayo uGeorge Bodington waphawula ukuthi labo abasebenza ngaphandle njengabalimi, abafuyi nabelusi—ayemancane amathuba okuba baphathwe isifo sofuba, kuyilapho labo ababechitha isikhathi esiningi besendaweni evalekile ayemaningi amathuba okuba babe naso.

UFlorence Nightingale (1820-1910) waziwa kakhulu ngamagalelo akhe kwezobuhlengikazi ngesikhathi enakekela amasosha aseBrithani ayelimele phakathi neMpi YaseCrimea. Wabuza: “Wake wangena ekamelweni lokulala lanoma yimuphi umuntu . . . ebusuku, noma ekuseni ngaphambi kokuvulwa kwamafasitela, wathola kuyisikutu futhi kunephunga elibi?” Wasikisela ukuthi igumbi lesiguli lihlale linomoya ohlanzeke njengomoya ongaphandle, kodwa ungasigodolisi isiguli. Wanezela: “Into eyinhloko engiyithole ekusebenzeni kwami ngeziguli ukuthi okokuqala, zidinga umoya ohlanzekile, okwesibili, zidinga ukukhanya . . . futhi hhayi noma yikuphi ukukhanya kodwa lokho okuvela ngokuqondile emisebeni yelanga.” Abaningi ngaleso sikhathi, babekholelwa nawukuthi ukweneka izingubo zokulala nezokugqoka elangeni kuyayithuthukisa impilo.

 Isayensi iye yathuthuka kusukela ngawo-1800, kodwa ucwaningo lwanamuhla luye lwafinyelela eziphethweni ezifanayo. Ngokwesibonelo, ucwaningo olwenziwa eChina ngo-2011, lwathola ukuthi izindlu eziminyene ezihlala abafundi basekolishi, nezinezimbobo ezinganele zokungenisa umoya, “zazinezinga eliphakeme lezifo ezithathelwana ngokuphefumula.”

I-World Health Organization (WHO) iyakuqaphela ukubaluleka kokungena komoya wemvelo, ohlanganisa ovela ngaphandle kwesakhiwo, ukuze kunqandwe ukuthelelana ngezifo. Empeleni, iziqondiso ze-WHO ezanyatheliswa ngo-2009 zakhuthaza ukusetshenziswa komoya wemvelo njengendlela esebenzayo yokunciphisa ingozi yokungenwa izifo, ezikhungweni zezempilo. *

Ungase uthi, ‘Konke lokhu kuhle kakhulu. Kodwa uyini umbono wezesayensi ngakho? Ukukhanya kwelanga nomoya ohlanzekile kukuvimbela kanjani ukungenwa izifo?’

Izibulala-magciwane Zemvelo

Ucwaningo olwenziwa esikhungweni soMnyango Wezokuvikela e-United Kingdom lusinikeza izimpendulo ezithile. Ososayensi babezama ukuthola ukuthi umoya wawuzohlala uyingozi isikhathi eside kangakanani uma kungaqhunyiswa isikhali samakhemikhali esigcwele amagciwane ayingozi phezu kwaseLondon. Ukuze bakwazi ukuhlola ukuba khona kwamagciwane emoyeni, abacwaningi babeka amabhaktheriya angama-E. coli ebulwembwini besicabucabu base bewabeka endaweni ayezoshaywa umoya kuyo. Lolu cwaningo lwenziwa ebusuku ngoba kwaziwa ukuthi ukukhanya kwelanga kuyawabulala la magciwane. Yaba yini imiphumela?

Ngemva kwamahora amabili, cishe wonke amagciwane ayesefile. Kodwa uma efakwa ebhokisini elivaliwe amazinga okushisa nokuswakama komoya kugcinwa kungashintshiwe, iningi lalawo mabhaktheriya latholakala lisaphila nangemva kwamahora amabili. Kungani? Ngokusobala, kunento ethile ewenza afe uma eshaywa umoya. Le nto okuthiwa umthelela wokushaywa umoya, ayikaqondwa kahle. Nokho, abacwaningi bacabanga ukuthi kungenzeka kubangelwa isakhi semvelo esitholakala emoyeni futhi esisebenza “njengesibulala-magciwane esingokwemvelo esibulala ubuthi noma amagciwane atholakala emoyeni.”

Ukukhanya kwelanga nakho kuyakwazi ukubulala amagciwane. I-Journal of Hospital Infection ithi “iningi lezilwanyana esingakwazi ukuzibona ngamehlo ezibanga izifo ezitholakala emoyeni, azikwazi ukubekezelela ukukhanya kwelanga.”

Ungakusebenzisa kanjani ngokwenzuzo yakho lokhu kwaziswa? Mhlawumbe ungase ufise ukuphumela phandle lapho ungakwazi khona ukuchitha isikhathi esithile elangeni futhi uthole umoya ohlanzekile. Cishe kuyokuzuzisa kakhulu.

^ isig. 8 Kunezinto ezithile ezingase zenze kungathandeki ukushiya amafasitela evuliwe. Zingahlanganisa umoya ongemuhle ovela ngaphandle, umsindo, imithetho yezomlilo nezokuphepha.