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OFakazi BakaJehova

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Phaphama!  |  January 2015

 ISIHLOKO ESISESEMBOZWENi | UKUPHILA KWAQALA KANJANI?

Imibuzo Emibili Okufanelekile Ukuyibuza

Imibuzo Emibili Okufanelekile Ukuyibuza

1 Ukuphila Kwaqala Kanjani?

OKUSHIWO ABANYE. Ukuphila kwamane kwavela entweni engaphili.

OKWENZA ABANYE BANGANELISEKI NGALE MPENDULO. Manje ososayensi sebazi okuningi ngokuphila nangezinhlayiyana ezakha izinto eziphilayo kunasesikhathini esidlule, noma kunjalo abakakwazi ukunikeza incazelo eqinisekile ngokuthi ukuphila kuyini. Kunomehluko omkhulu phakathi kwento engaphili nephilayo engeyona ngisho nenkimbinkimbi.

Ososayensi bangagcina ngokuqagela ukuthi izinto zazinjani emhlabeni eminyakeni eyizigidigidi edlule. Banemibono engafani ngokuthi ukuphila kwaqala kuphi—ngokwesibonelo, ngokuthi kwaqala entaba-mlilweni noma ezinzulwini zolwandle. Enye inkolelo iwukuthi, inhlanganisela yezakhi zokuphila yaqale yahlanganiswa ndawana-thile emkhathini yabe isiwela emhlabeni ithwelwe izinguzunga zamatshe. Kodwa lokho akuwuphenduli umbuzo othi ukuphila kwaqala kanjani; kumane nje kuyise isiqalo sokuphila kwenye indawo.

Ososayensi bayaqagela ngokuba khona kwezinhlayiyana ezandulela izakhi zofuzo esizaziyo namuhla. Lezi zinhlayiyana kuthiwa cishe zizivelela ngokwazo entweni engaphili bese ziyaziphindaphinda. Kodwa abukho ubufakazi isayensi enabo bokuthi lezi zinhlayiyana zake zaba khona, futhi ososayensi abakaze bakwazi ngisho nokwenza izinhlayiyana ezinjalo endaweni abenza kuyo ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Izinto eziphilayo zinendlela eyingqayizivele yokugcina ukwaziswa nokukusebenzisa. Amangqamuzana adlulisela iziyalezo ezisezakhini zofuzo, azichaze futhi enze ngokuvumelana nazo. Abanye ososayensi bafanisa izakhi zofuzo nohlelo lwe-computer bese kuthi amakhemikhali akha ingqamuzana bawafanise ne-computer ngokwayo. Kodwa imfundiso yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ayikwazi ukuchaza umsuka wezakhi zofuzo.

Kudingeka amaprotheni ukuze ingqamuzana lisebenze. Iprotheni evamile inamakhulu ama-amino acid axhumene ngendlela ethile ehlelekile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, inhlayiya yeprotheni kumelwe igoqeke ibe nazo zonke izinhlangothi ukuze isebenziseke. Abanye ososayensi baphetha ngokuthi, amathuba okuba ngisho nenhlayiya eyodwa yeprotheni izivelele mancane kakhulu. UPaul Davies ongusosayensi uyabhala, “Njengoba ingqamuzana eliphilayo lidinga amaprotheni ahlukahlukene ayizinkulungwane, kuyinto engakholeki ukuthi kungathiwa ávela ngenhlanhla.”

ISIPHETHO. Ngemva kwamashumi eminyaka yocwaningo, cishe kuyo yonke imikhakha yesayensi, iqiniso liwukuthi ukuphila kuvela ekuphileni okwakuvele kukhona.

 2 Izinto Eziphilayo Zakheka Kanjani?

OKUSHIWO ABANYE. Into yokuqala ephilayo eyaba khona yathuthuka kancane kancane yaba izinto ezihlukahlukene eziphilayo, kuhlanganise nabantu, ngenqubo yokuguquguquka kwezakhi zofuzo okungaqondiswa nokuzihlela kwemvelo.

OKWENZA ABANYE BANGANELISEKI NGALE MPENDULO. Amanye amangqamuzana ayinkimbinkimbi kakhulu kunamanye. Ngokwencwadi ethile, indlela amangqamuzana angeyona inkimbinkimbi angathuthuka ngayo abe yinkimbinkimbi, “ngokuvamile ibhekwa njengempicabadala yesibili ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo, ilandela indaba yomsuka wokuphila.”

Ososayensi bathole ukuthi engqamuzaneni ngalinye kunenqubo eyinkimbinkimbi yezinhlayiyana zamaprotheni abambisanayo ukuze enze imisebenzi ehlukahlukene. Le misebenzi ihlanganisa ukuthutha nokushintsha umsoco ube amandla, ukuvuselela ingqamuzana, nokudlulisa imiyalezo kulo lonke ingqamuzana. Ingabe inqubo yokuguquguquka kwezakhi zofuzo nokuzihlela kwemvelo, yikona okuyimbangela yokwakheka nokusebenza kwezinto eziyinkimbinkimbi kanjalo? Abaningi bakuthola kunzima ukwamukela lowo mqondo.

• Abantu nezilwane bavela eqandeni elihlangene nesidoda. Ngaphakathi embungwini, amangqamuzana ayaphindaphindeka abese ehluka kwamanye futhi akhe izingxenye ezihlukahlukene zomzimba. Imfundiso yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ayikwazi ukuchaza indlela ingqamuzana ngalinye “elazi” ngayo ukuthi kufanele libe yini nokuthi kufanele liye kuphi.

Ososayensi manje sebeyaqonda ukuthi ukuze uhlobo oluthile lwesilwane lushintshe lube olunye, kungadingeka ukuba ushintsho luqale ngaphakathi engqamuzaneni, ezinhlayiyeni ezincane. Njengoba ososayensi bengakwazi ukubonisa ukuthi ukuziphendukela kwemvelo kungalikhiqiza kanjani ngisho nengqamuzana “elilula nje,” singakukholelwa yini ukuthi ukuguquguquka kwezakhi zofuzo okungaqondiswa muntu kanye nokuzihlela kwemvelo yikona okwaveza izilwane ezihlukahlukene ezisemhlabeni? Ekhuluma ngendlela izilwane ezakheke ngayo, uMichael Behe, onguprofesa wesayensi yezinto eziphilayo, uthi nakuba ucwaningo “lwembule ukuba yinkimbinkimbi engalindelekile nekhexisayo, ayikho nencane intuthuko eyenziwe ekuqondeni ukuthi lokhu kuba yinkimbinkimbi bekungazivelela kanjani ngenqubo engaqondiswa muntu.”

Abantu bayaqonda ukuthi kwenzekani endaweni ebazungezile, bayacabanga futhi bahlaziye, baphinde babe nezimfanelo ezinjengokuphana, ukuzidela nomuzwa wokulungile nokungalungile. Ukuguquguquka kwezakhi zofuzo nokuzihlela kwemvelo akukwazi ukuchaza ukuthi lezi zimfanelo eziyingqayizivele zengqondo yomuntu zavelaphi.

ISIPHETHO. Nakuba abaningi begomela ngokuthi imfundiso yokuthi ukuphila kwaba khona ngokuziphendukela kwemvelo iyiqiniso elingenakuphikwa, abanye azibanelisi izimpendulo ezinikezwa yile mfundiso mayelana nendlela ukuphila okwakheka ngayo.