Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

Imizila Yamanzi—Ubunjiniyela Obumangalisayo BaseRoma

Imizila Yamanzi—Ubunjiniyela Obumangalisayo BaseRoma

KUYO yonke imisebenzi yobunjiniyela basendulo, imizila yamanzi yaseRoma iphakathi kwezinto zobuciko ezibabazeka kakhulu. “Uma uthanda, ungaqhathanisa lezi zakhiwo ezibaluleke kakhulu ezazithutha amanzi amaningi kanye nemibhoshongo yaseGibhithe noma imisebenzi yobuciko yamaGreki edumile kodwa engenanjongo!,” kubhala uSextus Julius Frontinus, owayengumbusi nomphathi wezokuthuthwa kwamanzi (35—cishe kuya ku-103 C.E.). *

Yini Eyenza Kwaba Nesidingo Semizila Yamanzi?

Ngokuvamile, imizi yasendulo yayakhiwa ezindaweni eziseduze kwamanzi amaningi futhi kwakunjalo nangeRoma. Ekuqaleni, uMfula iTiber neziphethu eziseduze kanye nemithombo, kwakunamanzi anele. Nokho, kusukela ekhulwini lesine B.C.E., iRoma yakhula ngokushesha, kanjalo nesidingo sayo samanzi.

Njengoba babembalwa abantu ababenemisele yamanzi efinyelela emizini yabo, amaRoma akha amakhulu ezindawo zokugeza zomphakathi nezabantu ngabanye. Indawo yokugeza yokuqala yomphakathi eyayisedolobheni laseRoma, yayithola amanzi ngomzila i-Aqua Virgo owaphothulwa ngo-19 B.C.E. Umakhi walowo mzila, uMarcus Agrippa, umngane omkhulu kaKhesari Awugustu, wachitha imali yakhe eningi ekulungiseni nasekwandiseni le misele yamanzi yaseRoma.

Izindawo zokugeza zagcina seziyizigcawu okubuthanwa kuzo, ezinkulu zazo zazinezingadi kanye nemitapo yezincwadi. Lapho esuka ezindaweni zokugeza, la manzi ayengavaleki ayehamba ngale misele, aqhubeke ayongena ezitamukokweni, elokhu ekhuculula indle, kuhlanganise naleyo esezindlini zangasese ezazixhumene nezindawo zokugeza.

Ukuyakha Nokuyilondoloza

Uma uzwa igama elithi “imizila yamanzi yaseRoma,” ingabe ucabanga ngezinsika ezinde ezisamabhuloho ezihamba ibanga elide? Eqinisweni, lezi zinsika zazakha amaphesenti angaphansi kuka-20 aleyo mizila yamanzi, ingxenye enkulu yayo yayihamba ngaphansi komhlaba. Lo mklamo ongabizi, wawungagcini nje ngokuvikela le mizila yamanzi ukuba ingonakali kodwa futhi wawuthatha nendawo encane. Ngokwesibonelo, i-Aqua Marcia, eyaqedwa ukwakhiwa  ngo-140 B.C.E., yayingamakhilomitha angu-92 ubude kodwa inezinsika ezihamba ibanga elingamakhilomitha angaba ngu-11 nje kuphela.

Ngaphambi kokwakha umzila wamanzi, onjiniyela babehlola izinga lamanzi ababefuna ukuwadonsa ngokuhlolisisa ukuhlanzeka kwawo, izinga ageleza ngalo kanye nokunambitheka kwawo. Babephawula nesimo sempilo yabantu bendawo abaphuza lawo manzi. Ngemva kokuba indawo seyigunyaziwe, abahloli bokuma kwendawo babelinganisa umzila ofanele kanye nezinga lokwehlela lalowo mzila, kuhlanganise nobubanzi bomsele ozokwenziwa kanye nebanga ozolihamba. Ngokungangabazeki kwakusetshenziswa izigqila ekwakheni. Kwakungathatha iminyaka ukwakha le mizila yamanzi, okwakuyenza ibe yizindleko ezinkulu—ikakhulu uma kudingeka nezinsika zokuyisekela.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, le misele kwakudingeka ukuba igcinwe isesimweni esihle futhi ivikelwe. Ukuze inakekelwe, ngesinye isikhathi idolobha laseRoma laqasha abantu abangaba ngu-700. Izinto ezazizosiza ekugcineni le misele isesimweni esihle zazihlanganisiwe lapho iklanywa. Ngokwesibonelo, izingxenye zemizila ezingaphansi komhlaba zazifinyeleleka ngemigodi eyenzelwe lokho kanye nemihubhe. Lapho kunomonakalo omkhulu odinga ukulungiswa, onjiniyela babewachezukisa amanzi okwesikhashana ukuze angayi kuleyo ndawo edinga ukulungiswa.

Imizila Yasedolobheni LaseRoma

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu lesithathu C.E., kwakunemizila yamanzi emikhulu engu-11 eyayiphakela idolobha laseRoma ngamanzi. Owokuqala, yi-Aqua Appia, owakhiwa ngo-312 B.C.E. futhi ungaphezu nje kwamakhilomitha angu-16 ubude, wawucishe ube ngaphansi komhlaba ngokuphelele. I-Aqua Claudia, ingxenye yayo esekhona nanamuhla, yayingamakhilomitha angu-69 ubude futhi inezinsika zokuyisekela eziyibanga elingamakhilomitha ayishumi, eziningi zazo ezazingamamitha angu-27 ukuphakama!

Yayithwala amanzi angakanani le mizila yamanzi yedolobha? Amaningi kakhulu! I-Aqua Marcia okuke kwakhulunywa ngayo, nsuku zonke yayiletha amanzi angamalitha ayizigidi ezingu-190 eRoma. Lapho amanzi esefikile ezindaweni zasedolobheni—njengoba indawo ayehamba kuyo yayehlela—ayengena emathangini ahlukahlukene abese eqhubekela emiseleni emincane eyayiwaholela kwamanye amathangi noma izindawo adingeka kuzo. Abanye balinganisela ukuthi isimiso sokuthutha amanzi saseRoma sathuthuka kwaze kwaba yilapho isakhamuzi ngasinye sasingathola amanzi angaphezu kwamalitha ayinkulungwane ngosuku.

Njengoba uMbuso waseRoma wawukhula, “imisele yamanzi yayenabela kuzo zonke izindawo zeRoma,” kusho incwadi ethi Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply. Izivakashi eziya e-Asia Minor, eFrance, eSpain naseNyakatho ye-Afrika zisabubona lobu bunjiniyela obumangalisayo basendulo.

^ isig. 2 AmaRoma ayengebona abantu bokuqala ukwenza imizila yamanzi. Ezinye izizwe zasendulo, njengabase-Asiriya, eGibhithe, eNdiya nasePheresiya, zazibandulele kulokhu.