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Phaphama!  |  September 2014

 EZASENDULO

ISpain Sixosha Ama-Morisco

ISpain Sixosha Ama-Morisco

Kuthiwa cishe zonke izinyathelo ezathathwa yiSpain kule ndaba edabukisayo zazigqugquzelwa yisonto. Lena indaba ekufanelekelayo ukufundwa.

ABABUSI baseSpain babefuna ukuba nezwe lobuKristu elinomthetho owodwa. AmaMorisco ayebhekwa njengabantu abangakholwa—yileyo ndlela okwakucatshangwa ngayo—futhi ngenxa yalokho ukuba khona kwawo kwakuyisono esikhulu emehlweni kaNkulunkulu. Ngemva kweminyaka eminingi, kwenziwa isinqumo. Saba yini? AmaMorisco kufanele axoshwe! *

BAGUQULWA NGENDLUZULA

Kwaphela amakhulu eminyaka, ama-Moor eSpain—okuyidlanzana lamaSulumane elalibizwa ngama-Mudéjar—ehlala ngokuthula ezindaweni ezazibuswa amaKatolika. Okwesikhathi esithile, kwezinye izindawo ayejabulela ilungelo elingokomthetho elaliwavumela ukuba aphile ngemithetho namasiko awo futhi aqhube inkolo yawo.

Kodwa ngo-1492, iNkosi uFerdinand II neNdlovukazi u-Isabella abangamaKatolika banqoba iGranada, okwakuyingxenye yokugcina ye-Iberia eyayisabuswa amaSulumane. Isivumelwano esalandela ukucela kwamaMoor umaluju, senza anikezwa amalungelo afanayo nawama-Mudéjar. Nokho, ngokushesha abaholi bamaKatolika balishushisa futhi balicindezela ngamandla lelo dlanzana lamaSulumane elalingaphansi kombuso  wabo ngenjongo yokuliguqula. AmaMoor akhalaza kakhulu ngalokhu kwephulwa kwesivumelwano esasenziwe futhi ngo-1499 avukela umbuso. Amasosha kahulumeni akuqeda lokho kuvukela, kodwa ngemva kwalokho amaSulumane ezindaweni ngezindawo ayekhethiswa phakathi kokuguquka noma ukuthuthela kwelinye izwe. Abantu baseSpain babiza labo ababeguqukile futhi baqhubeka behlala eSpain ngokuthi amaMorisco.

“ABAWONA AMAKRISTU AQOTHO NOMA IZIKHONZI EZITHEMBEKILE”

Ngo-1526, inkolo yobuSulumane yayingasavunyelwe kulo lonke elaseSpain, kodwa amaMorisco amaningi ayesaqhubeka nenkolo yawo ngomshoshaphansi. Amaningi awo, akwazi ukulondoloza amasiko awo omdabu.

Ekuqaleni, ubuzenzisi bamaMorisco enkolweni yobuKatolika babekezelelwa. Phela, ayenza imisebenzi ebalulekile edinga amakhono obuciko, ukubaza, enza neminye imisebenzi enzima futhi ekhokha nentela. Noma kunjalo, ukwenqaba kwawo ukwamukela ubuKatolika kwawenza azondwa, futhi abhekana nokucwaswa uhulumeni nangabantu abavamile. Lokho kucwaswa kungenzeka kwabhebhethekiswa izinsolo ezazanda kuleli sonto eziphathelene nokungatshazwa kobuqotho bokuguquka kwawo.

Kungakabiphi, ukuwabekezelela kwathathelwa indawo ukuphoqwa. Ngo-1567, iNkosi uPhilip II yakhipha isinqumo sokuthi ulimi, izingubo zokugqoka, amasiko nemikhuba yamaMorisco kungabe kusavunyelwa. Lesi sinyathelo sabangela ukuba kube nokunye ukuvukela nokuchitheka kwegazi.

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi angaba ngu-300 000 amaMorisco abhekana nokuhlupheka okukhulu ngenxa yokuhanjiswa ngempoqo

Ngokwezazi-mlando, ababusi baseSpain babeqiniseka ngokuthi “amaMorisco awawona amaKristu aqotho noma izikhonzi ezithembekile.” Ngaleso sizathu, asolwa ngokuchema nezitha zaseSpain—abaphangi bemikhumbi baseNyakatho ye-Afrika, amaProthestani aseFrance kanye nabaseTurkey—ukuze asekele ukunqotshwa kweSpain amanye amazwe. Lolu bandlululo nokwesaba ukuthi amaMorisco ayezobaphendukela ekugcineni, kwashukumisa uPhilip III ukuba akhiphe isinqumo sokuwaxosha ngo-1609. * Eminyakeni eyalandela, abantu ababesolwa ngokuba amaMorisco babeshushiswa. Ngalezo zindlela eziyihlazo, iSpain saba yizwe lobuKatolika ngokuphelele.

^ isig. 4 Igama elithi Morisco lisho “Imizulane Emincane” ngolimi lweSpanishi. Izazi-mlando zisebenzisa leli gama ngendlela engeyona eyokweyisa lapho zibhekisela kubantu ababevela enkolweni yobuSulumane abaguqukela enkolweni yobuKatolika futhi ababehlala eNhlonhlweni yase-Iberia ngemva kokuwa kombuso wokugcina wamaSulumane kuleyo ndawo ngo-1492.

^ isig. 12 Izazi-mlando zicabangela nokuthi okungenani oyedwa kubabusi baseSpain wazuza kakhulu ekuthathweni ngodlí kwezindawo zamaMorisco.