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Phaphama!  |  Meyi 2014

Ukuzingelwa Kwabathakathi EYurophu

Ukuzingelwa Kwabathakathi EYurophu

EMAKHULWINI ambalwa eminyaka adlule eYurophu, ukwesatshwa kokuthakathwa kwaholela ekuzingelweni nasekubulaweni kwabathakathi. Lokhu kwakwenzeka kakhulu eFrance, eJalimane, enyakatho ye-Italy, eSwitzerland nasemazweni asezansi—eBelgium, Luxembourg naseNetherlands. Incwadi ethi Witch Hunts in the Western World, * ithi: “Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu baseYurophu nakumakoloni aseYurophu bafa, kanti ezinye izigidi zabantu zahlukunyezwa, zaboshwa, zaquliswa amacala, zazondwa, zabekwa amacala noma zesatshiswa.” Lokhu kunukwa kwabantu kwaqala kanjani? Yini eyakwenza kwabhebhetheka?

Amacala Ezihlubuki Nencwadi Ethi The Hammer of Witches

Imbangela eyinhloko yale ndaba kwaba Amacala Ezihlubuki. Lo mkhuba waqalwa iSonto LamaRoma Katolika ngekhulu le-13 “ukuze liguqule izihlubuki futhi livimbele abantu ekuhlubukeni,” ngokwencwadi ethi, Der Hexenwahn (Intshiseko Ngabathakathi). La Macala Ezihlubuki asetshenziswa njengenqubo yeSonto yokuqondiswa kwezigwegwe.

Ngo-December 5, 1484, uPapa Innocent VIII wakhipha incwadi noma umqulu owawulahla ubuthakathi. Wagunyaza nabantu ababili ababezoqula Amacala Ezihlubuki—uJakob Sprenger noHeinrich Kramer (owaziwa nangokuthi uHenricus Institoris okuyigama nesibongo sakhe sesiLatini)—ukuze balwe nale nkinga. La madoda amabili akhipha incwadi enesihloko esithi Malleus Maleficarum, okusho ukuthi, Ukunqotshwa Kwabathakathi. AmaKatolika namaProthestani ayemukela njengegunyaza indlela yokulwa nobuthakathi. Le ncwadi yayiqukethe izindaba eziqanjiwe ngabathakathi ezisekelwe kulokho okushiwo umphakathi. Yayikhuluma ngezimfundiso zenkolo noma ngezimpikiswano ezingokomthetho ezimelene nobuthakathi, futhi inikeza neziqondiso zokuthi abathakathi bangabonakala kanjani futhi baqedwe kanjani. Le ncwadi ethi Ukunqotshwa Kwabathakathi iye yachazwa ‘njengencwadi enesihluku kakhulu nencwadi elimaza kunazo zonke izincwadi emhlabeni.’

Incwadi ethi Ukunqotshwa Kwabathakathi iye yachazwa ngokuthi ‘incwadi enesihluku kakhulu nelimaza kunazo zonke izincwadi emhlabeni’

 Ukunukwa njengomthakathi kwakungabudingi ubufakazi bokuba necala. Incwadi ethi Hexen und Hexenprozesse (Abathakathi Nokushushiswa Kwabathakathi) ithi lokho kuthethwa kwamacala ‘kwakuhloselwe ukuba labo abamangalelwe, baphoqwe noma bacindezelwe ukuba bawavume.’ Ukuhlukunyezwa kwakuyinto evamile.

Umphumela wencwadi ethi Ukunqotshwa Kwabathakathi nomqulu owagunyazwa uPapa Innocent VIII, waba ukuzingelwa okukhulu kwabathakathi eYurophu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lezi zenzo zasekelwa nayizinto ezintsha zobuchwepheshe, imishini yokunyathelisa, okwasiza ekwandiseni ukuthandwa kwalo mkhuba, ngisho nakuyo yonke i-Atlantic kuze kuyofika eMelika.

Obani Ababenukwa?

Abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angu-70 ababenukwa kwakungabesifazane, ikakhulukazi abafelokazi, ngokuvamile ababengenabo abantu abangabavikela. Izisulu zazihlanganisa abampofu, abagugile nabesifazane ababelapha ngamakhambi—ikakhulukazi uma lawo makhambi engasebenzanga. Empeleni akekho owayephephile, ocebile noma ompofu, owesilisa noma owesifazane, ophansi noma ovelele.

Abantu ababenukwa babesolwa ngazo zonke izinhlobo zobubi. Babesolwa “ngokubangela ukukhithika kwezulu, iminenke namacimbi okwakubhubhisa imbewu nezithelo zomhlaba,” ngokusho kukamagazini waseJalimane i-Damals. Uma izitshalo zihlaselwa isichotho, izinkomo zingenalo ubisi, indoda ingakwazi ukwanelisa umkayo ngokocansi noma owesifazane eyinyumba, nakanjani abathakathi babethweswa icala ngalokho!

Abanukwayo babebekwa esikalini ngoba kwakucatshangwa ukuthi abathakathi balula noma abanaso nhlobo isisindo

Kwakutholakala kanjani ukuthi umuntu ungumthakathi? Abanye ababenukwa babeboshwa bese befakwa emanzini abandayo “athandazelwe.” Uma becwila, babebhekwa njengabangenacala bese bekhishwa. Uma bentanta, babebhekwa njengabathakathi bese benqunywa ngaso leso sikhathi noma banikelwe kubashushisi. Abanye abanukwayo babebekwa esikalini ngoba kucatshangwa ukuthi abathakathi abanaso isisindo.

Okunye ukuhlolwa kwakuhlanganisa ukufuna “uphawu lukaDeveli,” ‘okuwuphawu olubonakalayo olwalushiywa uDeveli olwalumhlanganisa nomthakathi,’ ngokusho kwencwadi ethi Witch Hunts in the Western World. Izikhulu zombuso zazifuna lolu phawu “ngokuphuca zonke izinwele kumuntu osolwayo futhi zihlole zonke izitho zakhe zomzimba engagqokile”—phambi kwabantu! Ngemva kwalokho zazimhlaba ngenaliti nomaphi lapho kutholakala khona isibazi esithile, njengebala umuntu azalwa nalo, amaqhubu kanye nezibazi. Uma ohlatshwayo engabuzwa ubuhlungu noma engophi, leso sibazi sasibhekwa njengophawu lukaSathane.

Umbuso wamaKatolika nowamaProthestani wasekela ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi, kanti kwezinye izindawo ababusi abangamaProthestani babenonya kakhulu kunozakwabo abangamaKatolika. Nokho, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, izizathu zaqala ukuvela. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo-1631, uFriedrich Spee, umpristi ongumJesuit owayethatha abantu abaningi ababelahlwe amacala okuthakatha abayise lapho bezophanyekwa khona bese beshiswa bephila, wabhala ukuthi ngokombono wakhe, akekho noyedwa owayesuke enecala. Waxwayisa ngokuthi, ukube ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi akuzange kunqandwe, izwe laliyosala lingenamuntu! Phakathi naleso sikhathi, odokotela baqala ukuqaphela ukuthi izinto ezifana nokuquleka, zazingahlotshaniswa nesimo sempilo hhayi ukuhlaselwa amademoni. Phakathi nekhulu le-17, inani lamacala lehla ngokushesha, kanti ngasekupheleni kwalelo khulu ayengasekho amacala anjalo.

Yini esiyifundayo ngaleyo nkathi yonya? Isifundo esiyinhloko ukuthi: Lapho amaKristu okuzisholo eqala ukufundisa izimfundiso zenkolo ezingamanga kanye nokukholelwa ezeni esikhundleni sezimfundiso zikaJesu Kristu ezihlanzekile, avula umnyango wezinto ezimbi ngokunyantisayo. Lapho libikezela ngesihlamba esasiyolethwa yila madoda angathembekile ebuKristwini beqiniso, iBhayibheli laxwayisa: “Indlela yeqiniso iyohlanjalazwa.”2 Petru 2:1, 2.

^ isig. 2 Amakoloni aseYurophu ahlanganisa amazwe aseMelika.