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Phaphama!  |  Febhuwari 2013

 EZASENDULO

UPlato

UPlato

UPlato (owaphila cishe ngo-427-347 B.C.E.) wayeyisazi sefilosofi esingumGreki esikhulekela onkulunkulu bamanga. Wazalelwa e-Athene emndenini wezicukuthwane futhi wathola imfundo enhle eyayitholwa intsha engamaGreki. Wathonywa kakhulu isazi sefilosofi esasidumile uSocrates kuhlanganise nabalandeli bakaPythagoras, owayeyisazi sefilosofi nesezibalo.

NGEMVA kokuzulazula ezindaweni ezigudle ugu lolwandle lwaseMedithera futhi ehileleke kwezombangazwe zaseSirakhuse, idolobha laseGrisi eliseSisili, uPlato waphindela e-Athene, lapho afike wasungula khona iSikhungo Sezemfundo. Lesi Sikhungo esivame ukubizwa ngeNyuvesi yokuqala yaseYurophu, saba isizinda sokucwaninga ngezibalo nefilosofi.

KUNGANI KUFANELE UBE NENDABA NALOKHU?

Izimfundiso zikaPlato ziye zazithonya ngokuphawulekayo izinkolelo zezigidi zabantu, kuhlanganise nalabo abazibiza ngamaKristu, abaningi babo abenza iphutha lokucabanga ukuthi izinkolelo zabo zisekelwe eBhayibhelini. Imfundiso evelele phakathi kwezimfundiso zikaPlato, eyokuthi abantu banomphefumulo ongafi oqhubeka uphila lapho kufa umzimba.

“Ukungafi komphefumulo kungesinye sezihloko ayezithanda kakhulu uPlato.”—Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy

UPlato wayeyithanda kakhulu indaba yokuphila kwangemva kokufa. Incwadi ethi Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy ithi, “ukungafi komphefumulo kungesinye sezihloko ayezithanda kakhulu uPlato.” Wayekholelwa ngokuqinile ukuthi “umphefumulo uyaqhubeka uphila ngemva kokufa komzimba, ukuze uthole umvuzo ofanele noma ujeziswe” ekuphileni kwangemva kokufa, kuye ngokuthi umuntu wayeziphatha kanjani esaphila emhlabeni. *

 ZASAKAZEKA KANJANI IZIMFUNDISO ZIKAPLATO?

ISikhungo semfundo sikaPlato sasinethonya elinamandla kakhulu phakathi namakhulu eminyaka angu-9 sisebenza, kusukela ngo-387 B.C.E. kuya ku-529 C.E. Imibono kaPlato yayithandwa emazweni ayebuswa iGrisi nayiRoma. Isazi sefilosofi esingumJuda uPhilo wase-Aleksandriya wamukela izimfundiso zikaPlato, njengoba kwenza abaholi abaningi bamaSonto athi angawobuKristu. Ngenxa yalokho, izimfundiso zefilosofi ezingamanga, ezihlanganisa ukungafi komphefumulo, zangena ngesinyenyela ezimfundisweni zenkolo yobuJuda neyalabo abazibiza ngamaKristu.

I-Anchor Bible Dictionary ithi, “Ngokwezinga elithile, zonke izimfundiso zobuKristu zincike kuyifilosofi yamaGreki, ngokuyinhloko ekaPlato, kanti ezinye izazi ezingamaKristu okuzisholo . . . zifanelwe igama elithi amaKristu kaPlato.” Qhathanisa lokhu okushiwo imithombo elandelayo.

Lokho uPlato akusho: “[Ekufeni,] lokho ngamunye wethu ayikho ngempela, futhi esikubiza ngokuthi umphefumulo ongafi, kuyahamba kuye kwabanye onkulunkulu, ukuze kuziphendulele—isenzakalo okufanele babhekane naso ngesibindi abalungile, kodwa okufanele sibathuthumelise ababi.”—Plato—Laws, Book XII.

Okushiwo iBhayibheli: Umphefumulo ungumuntu ngokwakhe noma ukuphila kwakhe. Ngisho nezilwane ziyimiphefumulo. Ekufeni, umphefumulo uyashabalala. * Cabangela le miBhalo:

  • “Umuntu wokuqala u-Adamu waba ngumphefumulo ophilayo.”—1 Korinte 15:45.
  • “UNkulunkulu wathi: ‘Umhlaba mawuveze imiphefumulo ephilayo ngezinhlobo zayo, izilwane ezifuywayo nezilwane ezihambayo nezilo zasendle zomhlaba.’”—Genesise 1:24.
  • “Umphefumulo wami mawufe.”—Numeri 23:10.
  • “Umphefumulo owonayo—yiwo oyokufa.”—Hezekeli 18:4.

Ngokusobala, iBhayibheli alifundisi ukuthi umphefumulo uqhubeka uphila ngemva kokufa komzimba. Ngakho zibuze, ‘Ingabe izinkolelo zami zisekelwe eBhayibhelini noma kuyifilosofi kaPlato?’

^ isig. 7 Nakuba uPlato ayenza yathandwa inkolelo yokungafi komphefumulo, akuyena owokuqala owaba nale nkolelo. Ngezincazelo zayo ezihlukahlukene, le mfundiso kwase kuyisikhathi iyingxenye yenkolo yamanga, okuhlanganisa eyaseGibhithe neyaseBhabhiloni.

^ isig. 12 IBhayibheli lifundisa ukuthi abafileyo kunjengokungathi balele, balindele uvuko. (UmShumayeli 9:5; Johane 11:11-14; IzEnzo 24:15) Ngokuphambene nalokhu, lokho okuthiwa imiphefumulo engafi akunakufa, okwenza kungabi nasidingo sokuba kuvuswe.