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Phaphama!  |  Disemba 2012

Isichazamazwi Okuthathe Iminyaka Engu-90 Ukusenza

Isichazamazwi Okuthathe Iminyaka Engu-90 Ukusenza

NGO-1621, umhloli wamazwe waseNtaliyane wathola uhlobo oluthile lombhalo ongaziwa emfucumfucwini yomuzi wasePheresiya lasendulo iPersepolis. Ngawo-1800, abavubukuli ababemba e-Iraq bavubukula imibhalo eminingi ethi ayifane nalo mbhalo iqoshwe ezibhebheni zobumba nasezindongeni zasesigodlweni. Le mibhalo, yayiqukethe izilimi zaseMesophothamiya ezazikhulunywa ababusi abanjengoSarigoni II, uHammurabi noNebukhadinezari II. Lo mbhalo onezimpawu ezime njengonxantathu, wagcina sewaziwa ngokuthi i-cuneiform.

Lolu hlobo lombhalo lwalubalulekile ukuze kuqondwe impucuko enkulu yaseMesophothamiya yasendulo. Yingakho izazi ezazicwaninga ukuze ziqonde lo mbhalo zabona kunesidingo sokuba nesichazamazwi esiqukethe yonke into ngolimi lwesi-Akkad, okuwulimi oluhlobene eduze nezilimi zase-Asiriya naseBhabhiloni.

Inhlangano yabacwaningi baseNyuvesi yaseChicago, e-U.S.A., ebizwa nge-Oriental Institute, yaqala lo msebenzi omkhulu wokwenza lesi sichazamazwi ngo-1921, yaze yawuqeda ngemva kweminyaka engu-90, ngo-2011. Saba isichazamazwi sesi-Asiriya esikhulu futhi esibalulekile esiyizingxenye ezingu-26, nesinamakhasi angaphezu kuka-9  700. Sihlanganisa izilimi nezilimi zezigodi ezazikhulunywa e-Iran, e-Iraq, eSiriya naseTurkey, kusukela enkulungwaneni yesithathu yeminyaka B.C.E. kuya ekhulwini lokuqala.

Isichazamazwi sesi-Asiriya esiyizingxenye ezingu-26, sinamakhasi angaphezu kuka-9 700!

Kungani lesi sichazamazwi sisikhulu kangaka? Kungani kwathatha isikhathi eside kangaka ukuba siqedwe? Obani abangathanda ukusisebenzisa?

Okuqukethwe Yilesi Sichazamazwi

“Lesi sichazamazwi asiqukethe nje uhlu lwamagama,” kuchaza uGil Stein, ongumqondisi wenhlangano i-Oriental Institute yaseChicago. Kunalokho, “njengoba sinikeza imininingwane ngomsuka wegama ngalinye nezindlela ezihlukahlukene elalisetshenziswa ngazo, empeleni lo mqulu oyingqayizivele uyi-encyclopedia yomlando, umphakathi, izincwadi, umthetho nenkolo yaseMesophothamiya. Uyithuluzi lokucwaninga elibaluleke kakhulu kunoma isiphi isazi noma kuphi esifuna ukuhlola umlando olotshiwe wempucuko yaseMesophothamiya.”

Abahleli balesi sichazamazwi baqaphela zisuka nje emsebenzini wabo ukuthi “ukuze bachaze igama ngendlela enembile, kumelwe lithathwe kuzo zonke izindawo elivela kuzo, futhi kungathathwa igama nje kuphela kodwa kuthathwe nendaba elisetshenziswe kuyo ukuze kutholakale incazelo yalo emongweni wendaba elisetshenziswe kuyo.” Ngakho lesi sichazamazwi saba iqoqo lezingcaphuno nezincazelo ezithathwe embhalweni wokuqala we-cuneiform okuvela kuyo amagama achazwayo.

Kuye kwatholakala izigidi zemibhalo ye-cuneiform emakhulwini amabili eminyaka edlule, futhi ikhuluma ngezinto eziningi ezihlukahlukene. Ulimi oluxube olwase-Asiriya nolwaseBhabhiloni noma isi-Akkad, yilo olwalusetshenziswa imibuso yamazwe ahlukahlukene eMpumalanga Ephakathi yasendulo. Nokho, abantu bakule ndawo babebhala izincwadi; behweba; befunda izibalo; izinkanyezi nomkhathi nemilingo; besungula imithetho; bethuthukisa imisebenzi futhi behileleke nasenkolweni. Khona-ke, imibhalo yabo kuzo zonke lezi zinto nezinye izihloko isinika ingcebo yolwazi.

Le mibhalo ayinikezi nje isithombe sempucuko eyinqaba. UMatthew Stolper onguprofesa we-Assyriology eNyuvesi yaseChicago, nowayelokhu esiza iminyaka engu-30 emsebenzini wokwenziwa kwalesi sichazamazwi uthi: “Okuningi okubonayo kuqondakala kahle—abantu bebonisa ukwesaba nolaka, bebonisa uthando, becela uthando. Kunemibhalo eyaqoshwa amakhosi ekutshela indlela wona ayemakhulu ngayo, kanye neminye imibhalo evela kwabanye abantu ekutshela ukuthi lawo makhosi ayengemakhulu kangako.” Kanti imibhalo etholakala eNuzi, e-Iraq yosuku lwanamuhla, ikhuluma ngezingxabano ezingokomthetho ezenzeka eminyakeni engu-3 500 edlule, ezaziphathelene nefa lomfelokazi, ukuniselwa kwensimu nembongolo eyayibolekiwe.

Usuphothulwe Ngempela Yini Umsebenzi?

Izazi zomlando, ezemivubukulo nolimi lwaseMesophothamiya ezivela emhlabeni jikelele, zaba negalelo kulo msebenzi wokwenziwa kwalesi sichazamazwi. Izisebenzi zale nhlangano yabacwaningi zachitha amashumi eminyaka zifaka emafayilini amakhadi ezikhombo abonisa indlela amagama asetshenziswa ngayo, kanti la makhadi ayebalelwa ezigidini ezimbili. Umqulu wokuqala wanyatheliswa ngo-1956. Kusukela lapho, ingu-25 imiqulu eye yakhishwa ngemva nje kokuba iphothuliwe. Lilonke leli qoqo le miqulu libiza imali engaba ngu-R16 000 uma ulithenga, kodwa konke ukwaziswa okukulo kutholakala mahhala kuyi-Internet.

Kwadingeka iminyaka engu-90 egcwele ukuze kuphothulwe lesi sichazamazwi. Noma kunjalo, labo ababehileleke kulo msebenzi omkhulukazi wokwenziwa kwaso bayakuqaphela ukulinganiselwa kwaso. Sikhuluma ngale ndaba, esinye isihloko sathi: “Abakayazi namanje incazelo yamanye amagama, kanti ngenxa yokuvela kwezinto ezintsha ngaso sonke isikhathi, lokhu kusho ukuthi . . . umsebenzi awukapheli.”