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OFakazi BakaJehova

IsiZulu

Phaphama!  |  Septhemba 2012

Usuku Lwembubhiso Lubangela Ukwesaba Okukhulu

Usuku Lwembubhiso Lubangela Ukwesaba Okukhulu

NGAPHANDLE nje kwezinto ezesabisayo futhi ezingelona iqiniso eziphathelene nosuku lwembubhiso okukhulunywe ngazo esihlokweni esandulele, kunezinto ezikhathazayo okufanele sicabange ngazo ngokujulile. Abantu abaningi bayakhathazeka ngemiphumela engase ibangelwe ukwanda okukhulu kwabantu nokusweleka kwamanzi nokudla. Abanye bakhathazeka ngemiphumela yokuwa komnotho emhlabeni wonke. Kuthiwani ngezinhlekelele zemvelo, izifo eziwubhadane noma impi yenuzi? Ingabe izinto ezinjengalezi zingabangela inhlekelele yembulunga yonke?

Ake sicabangele kafushane izimo okuvame ukukhulunywa ngazo eziphathelene nosuku lwembubhiso. Akuzona zonke okuthiwa ziyobulala bonke abantu emhlabeni, kodwa zibonakala zingabangela inhlekelele emphakathini. Zihlanganisa okulandelayo:

 Izintaba-mlilo Eziyingozi Kakhulu

Ngo-1991, iNtaba iPinatubo yaqhuma ePhilippines, yabulala abantu abangaphezu kuka-700 yashiya abangu-100 000 bengenamakhaya. Ifu elikhulu lomlotha lanyukela esibhakabhakeni ngamakhilomitha angu-30 ngemva kwalokho lawela phansi emhlabeni, lamboza izitshalo futhi labhidliza uphahla lwezindlu. IPinatubo nezinye izintaba-mlilo ezinjengayo zibangela ushintsho esimweni sezulu iminyaka eminingi ngemva kokuqhuma.

Ukuqhuma kwezintaba-mlilo okuyingozi kakhulu, njengalokho okwake kwenzeka esikhathini eside esidlule, kuyoba kukhulu ngezikhathi eziphindwe ngekhulu futhi kudale umonakalo omkhulu kakhulu kunanoma ikuphi ukuqhuma okulotshiwe emlandweni. Ngaphandle nje kwamandla ako abhubhisayo, ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu somhlaba kuyobangela ukungakhuli kwezitshalo, kuphazamise ukukhiqizwa kokudla futhi kubangele ukuba abantu abaningi balambe.

“Izintaba-mlilo zibulala izitshalo ngisho nezilwane eziqhele ngamakhilomitha amaningi; izintaba-mlilo eziyingozi kakhulu zisongela ukuziqeda nyá zonke izinto eziphilayo ngokushintsha isimo sezulu emhlabeni wonke.”—I-“National Geographic.

Izinguzunga Ezisemkhathini

Ngolunye usuku ekuseni ngo-1908, indoda ethile yayihleli kuvulandi wesitolo eVanavara, eSiberia, lapho kuqhuma okuthile kuyilahla phansi. Kwakhipha ukushisa okwayenza yezwa sengathi ihembe layo liyavutha. Lokho kuqhuma kwakwenzeke endaweni eqhele ngamakhilomitha angu-60. Ukuqhuma kwabangelwa inguzunga ethile evela emkhathini enobubanzi obungaba amamitha angu-35 nesisindo esingaba amakhilogremu ayizigidi eziyikhulu. Ngemva kokungena emkhathini womhlaba, le nguzunga yaqhuma ngenxa yamandla amakhulu nokushisa njengoba yehla. Lokho kuqhuma kwakhipha amandla alingana nawamabhomu angu-1 000 áqhuma eHiroshima abhubhisa ihlathi laseSiberia elingaba amakhilomitha-skwele angu-2 000. Yiqiniso, inguzunga enkulu evela emkhathini ingadala umonakalo omkhulu nakakhulu, ibangele imililo emikhulu bese kulandela ukwehla okukhulu kwezinga lokushisa emhlabeni futhi kuqothulwe izilwane nezitshalo eziningi.

“Kuwo wonke umlando womhlaba, izinkanyezi nezinguzunga ezivela emkhathini kuye kwawela emhlabeni. Lezi zinto zazenzeka kakhulu esikhathini esidlule, kodwa zizokwenzeka futhi. Yinto engenzeka noma nini kusukela manje.”—UChris, ofundisa isayensi yokuhlolwa kwezinkanyezi nokuma kwezinto ezisemkhathini ePenn State University.

 Ukushintsha Kwesimo Sezulu

Ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi ukunyuka kwezinga lokushisa komhlaba, isimo sezulu eseqisayo, ukuncibilika kwezinguzunga zeqhwa, nokufa kwezixhobo zamakhorali nezinto eziphilayo ezibalulekile, konke kubonisa ushintsho esimweni sezulu. Nakuba kukhulunywa kakhulu ngakho, abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi imbangela iwukushiswa kwamalahle, uwoyela, negesi yemvelo—izinto ezibaswayo ezimbiwa phansi zikhiphela izinga eliphakeme lesikhutha emkhathiningezimoto nangezimboni.

Abanye ochwepheshe bakholelwa ukuthi intuthu ekhishwa yilezo zinto ibambezela ukuphuma kwezinga lokushisa okusuka emhlabeni ngaleyo ndlela likhuphuke izinga lokushisa. Ngenxa yokuthi izihlahla zimunca isikhutha, izinga eliphakeme lokugawulwa kwamahlathi nalo lingaba nomthelela ekushintsheni kwesimo sezulu.

“Uma amazinga okufudumala kwembulunga yonke akhona njengamanje nokukhiqizwa kwesikhutha kungancishiswa, ososayensi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi isilinganiso sokushisa koMhlaba sizoqhubeka sinyuka, okuyobangela izimo zezulu ezingalindelekile ezeqisayo nokuphakama kwamanzi olwandle okungasongela izindawo eziphansi ezingasogwini okuhlala kuzo abantu abaningi.”—Incwadi ethi “A Mind for Tomorrow: Facts, Values, and the Future.”

Ubhadane Lwezifo

Ngekhulu le-14, isifo okuthiwa i-Black Death saqothula izingxenye ezintathu zabantu baseYurophu ngeminyaka emibili nje vo. Phakathi kuka-1918 no-1920, umkhuhlane waseSpain wabulala okungenani abantu abangaba yizigidi ezingu-50. Isimiso sezinto zokuhamba esingasheshi savimbela ukwanda kwalezo zifo. Kodwa, njengoba amadolobha ekhula futhi sekulula nokuya kwamanye amazwe isifo esifanayo sesingasabalala kalula kuwo wonke amazwekazi.

Ubhadane olunjalo lwezifo lungase lube yinto eyimvelo. Kodwa kuyanda ukukhathazeka okubangelwa izikhali ezenziwe ngamagciwane, nezifo ezenziwa abantu. Ochwepheshe kulo mkhakha bathi iqembu elincane labantu eliqeqeshiwe lingathenga izinto zokwakha lezi zikhali kuyi-Internet futhi lakhe izikhali ezibulalayo.

“Izifo ezizivelelayo nazo ziwusongo olukhulu; kodwa, isitha esihlakaniphile esihlome ngala magciwane—noma ngamagciwane [alwa nemithi ehlukahlukene] noma abangelwa amakhemikhali—singabangela imiphumela eyinhlekelele.”—I-Bipartisan WMD Terrorism Research Center.

 Ukuqothulwa Kwezinto Eziphilayo Ezibalulekile

Eminyakeni eyisihlanu edlule, abafuyi bezinyosi e-United States baye balahlekelwa amaphesenti angaba ngu-30 ezinyosi zabo unyaka ngamunye ngenxa yokunyamalala kwezinyosi eziyizisebenzi, inkinga yomhlaba wonke yokuvele kunyamalale izinyosi ezidlekeni zazo. Izinyosi zenza okungaphezu nje kokusinika uju. Zifaka impova ezitshalweni ezibalulekile, kuhlanganise amagilebhisi, ama-aphula, ama-soybean nokotini. Sincike ezinyosini.

Sincike kakhulu nakuyithombonkala (phytoplankton). Ngaphandle kwalo bezingeke zibe khona izinhlanzi. Ngaphandle kwemisundu evundisa inhlabathi, besizoba nezitshalo ezimbalwa kakhulu. Ukuphela nyá kwezinto eziphilayo ezinjengalezi kungabangela ukusweleka kokudla nendlala, kuholele ebudloveni nasezinxushunxushwini. Ukungcoliswa komhlaba, ukwanda kwabantu ngokweqile, ukuvuna ukudla ngokweqile, ukuqothulwa kwemvelo nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu kunomthelela ekuqothulweni kwezilwane eziningi mhlawumbe ngokuphindwe izikhathi ezingu-1 000 kunamazinga angokwemvelo.

“Minyaka yonke, izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo eziphakathi kuka-18 000 no-55 000 ziyanyamalala. Lokhu kubangelwa izinto ezenziwa abantu.”—I-United Nations Development Program.

Impi Yenuzi

Ukuqhuma nje okukodwa kwebhomu lenuzi kungabhubhisa idolobha ngokuphazima kweso—iqiniso elidabukisayo elafakazelwa kabili ngo-August 1945. Linamandla amangalisayo ibhomu lenuzi, libhubhisa libulale ngegagasi elikhulu lomoya, ukushisa, umlilo nemisebe eyingozi. Imisebe eyingozi ibuye ingcolise ukudla namanzi. Impi yenuzi ingabangela uthuli oluningi ukuba lukhuphukele emoyeni, luvimbe ukukhanya kwelanga futhi lubangele ukuba lehle izinga lokushisa emhlabeni. Ukudla okutshaliwe nezinye izitshalo kungafa. Ngaphandle kokudla, abantu nezilwane bangabulawa yindlala. Kuthiwa amazwe angaba ngu-9 angase ahlasele ngezikhali zawo zenuzi uma ethanda. Ezinye izizwe ezimbalwa kubonakala sengathi zimatasa zakha ezazo izikhali zenuzi. Izinhlangano zamaphekula zimagange zifuna ukuzithola.

“Izikhali zenuzi ziwusongo olukhulu kunazo zonke kubantu. . . . Kusenezikhali zenuzi ezingaba ngu-25 000 emhlabeni wonke . . . Ekugcineni amaphekula ayosithola esinye sazo.”—I-Union of Concerned Scientists.