Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

OFakazi BakaJehova

Khetha ulimi IsiZulu

Ochwepheshe Bemithi Bangenkathi Ephakathi

Ochwepheshe Bemithi Bangenkathi Ephakathi

IZICI eziningi zemithi yanamuhla kungenzeka ukuthi azizintsha njengoba abanye becabanga. Empeleni, izindlela eziningana zokwelapha esezivamile namuhla zazikhona emakhulwini eminyaka adlule kwezinye izindawo. Ngokwesibonelo, cabanga ngomlando wezokwelapha wenkathi ephakathi eMpumalanga Ephakathi.

Ngo-805 C.E., UCALIPH HARUN AR-RASHID wakha isibhedlela enhloko-dolobha yangakubo, iBaghdad. Kusukela ngekhulu lesi-9 kuya kwele-13 abanye ababusi bakha futhi balungisa izibhedlela kulo lonke elalibuswa amaSulumane, kusukela eSpain kuya kwelaseNdiya.

Lezi zibhedlela zazamukela abacebile nabampofu abavela kuzo zonke izinkolo. Odokotela abangochwepheshe babengagcini nje ngokwelapha abagulayo, kodwa babenza nocwaningo futhi baqeqeshe nodokotela abasha. Kwakunamagumbi okwelapha ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene—imithi yokwelapha ingaphakathi lomzimba womuntu, ukwelapha amehlo, amathambo, ukuhlinza, ukwelapha izifo ezithathelwanayo nezengqondo. Odokotela ababehamba nodokotela abasafunda, babehlola abagulayo njalo ekuseni futhi babatshele okufanele bakudle, babanike nemithi. Osokhemisi abasebenza ngaphakathi esibhedlela babekhipha imithi. Izisebenzi zasemahhovisi zazinakekela ukugcinwa kwamarekhodi, ukulawula ukuthengwa kwezinto nokwengamela ukuphekwa kokudla, kanye neminye imisebenzi ehilela ukwengamela—njengoba nje kunjalo nanamuhla.

Izazi-mlando zibheka lezi zibhedlela “njengenye yentuthuko enkulu eyenziwa ngenkathi ephakathi emphakathini wamaSulumane.” Kuwo wonke umbuso wamaSulumane, “isibhedlela sasakhiwa ngezindlela zokuvukela umbuso ezazizothonya intuthuko kwezesayensi yempilo nokunakekelwa kwayo kuze kube sezikhathini zanamuhla,” kusho umlobi nesazi-mlando uHoward R. Turner.

URHAZES, wazalwa phakathi nekhulu lesishiyagalolunye edolobheni lasendulo iRayy, manje esiyingxenye yedolobha laseTehran. Ubizwa ngokuthi “udokotela nesazi sezokwelapha esiphakeme kunazo zonke esiyiSululmane nesizedlula zonke phakathi neNkathi Ephakathi.” Ukuze kuzuze abanye odokotela, lesi sazi sesayensi sabhala phansi izindlela zaso zokuhlola, izimo zempilo yesiguli, amathuluzi okuxilonga kanye nemiphumela. Weluleka bonke odokotela ukuba bahlale benolwazi lwamuva emkhakheni wezempilo.

URhazes wafeza izinto eziningana. Ngokwesibonelo, imibhalo yakhe yokwelapha iyatholakala emiqulwini engu-23 ye-Al-Hawi (Incwadi Enkulu), esohlwini lwezincwadi eziphambili zezokwelapha. Kuthiwa lena yincwadi yokuqala okwatholakala kuyo izindlela zokubelethisa, ukwelapha izifo zabesifazane nokuhlinza amehlo. Phakathi kwezincwadi zakhe ezingu-56 eziphathelene nokwelapha, kukhona neziwumthombo onokwethenjelwa ezichaza ingxibongo nesimungumungwana. URhazes wabuye wathola ukuthi imfiva ingenye yezindlela umzimba ozivikela ngayo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, wayesebenzela ezibhedlela eziseRayy naseBaghdad, lapho umsebenzi wakhe wokwelapha abantu abagula ngengqondo waholela ekubeni kuthiwe unguchwepheshe wokusebenza kwengqondo nowokuyelapha. Ngaphandle kokwelapha, uRhazes wayebuye athole isikhathi sokubhala izincwadi eziphathelene nesayensi yokuthakwa kwemithi, isayensi yokuhlolwa kwezinkanyezi, izibalo, ifilosofi nemfundiso yenkolo.

U-AVICENNA, ungomunye umholi emkhakheni wezokwelapha, ovela eBukhara, namuhla ebizwa ngokuthi i-Uzbekistan. Waba udokotela, isazi sefilosofi, isazi sezinkanyezi nesazi sezibalo esikhulu kunazo zonke zangekhulu le-11. U-Avicenna wabhala i-encyclopedia, ebizwa ngokuthi i-Canon of Medicine, eyayihlanganisa zonke izinto eziphathelene nokwelapha.

Kuyi-Canon yakhe u-Avicenna wabhala ukuthi isifo sofuba siyathelelwana, wathi leso sifo singasakazeka  ngamanzi nomhlabathi, kanti imizwelo iyayithinta impilo yomuntu nokuthi izinzwa zidlulisela kokubili ubuhlungu nemiyalezo eyenza imisipha inyakaze. Le Canon yachaza izindlela ezingaba ngu-760 zokuthakwa kwemithi—izakhi zayo, indlela esebenza ngayo nendlela ebukeka ngayo—futhi yanikeza nezimiso zokuhlola imithi emisha. Njengoba yahunyushelwa olimini lwesiLatini, sekungamakhulu amaningi eminyaka le ncwadi isetshenziswa ezikoleni zokwelapha zaseYurophu.

Imibhalo yesi-Ar

U-ALBUCASIS naye uvelele emlandweni wezokwelapha. Lo msunguli wangekhulu leshumi, wase-Andalusia esibizwa ngokuthi iSpain namuhla, wenza imiqulu engu-30 enokwaziswa okufingqiwe, ehlanganisa amakhasi angu-300 akhuluma ngokuhlinza. Kuyo, wachaza inqubo ethuthukile enjengokusebenzisa i-catgut ukuze uthunge ngaphakathi, ukukhishwa kwamatshe asesinyeni usebenzisa ithuluzi elifakwa emgudwini womchamo, ukuhlinza indlala yegilo nokususa ulwelwesi esweni.

U-Albucasis wasebenzisa lokho okubizwa ngokuthi “izindlela zokwelapha zanamuhla” ukuze akwenze kube lula ukubeletha nokubuyisela ijoyinti lehlombe eligudlukile. Waqala ukusebenzisa ukotini ukuze avale umthungo ngemva kokuhlinza nokusebenzisa ukhonkolo ukuze aqondise amathambo aphukile. Wabuye wachaza nezindlela zokubuyisela amazinyo aphumile, ukwenza awokufakelwa, ukuwaqondisa nokususa uqweqwe oluba semazinyweni.

 Incwadi ka-Albucasis ephathelene nokuhlinza iyona eyabonisa indlela yokusebenza kwamathuluzi okuhlinza okokuqala ngqá. Yabonisa umdwebo ocacile onamathuluzi okuhlinza angaba ngu-200 futhi yanikeza isiqondiso sendlela yokuwasebenzisa nokuthi asetshenziswa nini. Eminye yemiklamo yakhe iye yashintshwa kancane ngemva kweminyaka eyinkulungwane.

U-Avicenna eqondisa ukuthakwa kwemithi yokwelapha ingxibongo

Ulwazi Lusakazekela ENtshonalanga

Ngekhulu le-11 nele-12, izazi zaqala ukuhumusha izincwadi zesi-Arabhu eziphathelene nokwelapha ngolimi lwesiLatini, ikakhulu eToledo, eSpain naseMonte Cassino naseSalerno, e-Italy. Odokotela babe sebefunda lezo zincwadi ezihunyushiwe emayunivesithi asebenzisa isiLatini kulo lonke elaseYurophu. Ngakho, ulwazi lwezokwelapha lwaseMpumalanga Ephakathi “lwangena lwagxila eYurophu emashumini eminyaka alandela, mhlawumbe ngaphezu kwalo lonke olunye ulwazi lwesayensi yamaSulumane,” kusho umlobi wesayensi u-Ehsan Masood.

Ngokusobala, okwatholwa nokwasungulwa ochwepheshe bangenkathi ephakathi abanjengoRhazes, u-Avicenna, u-Albucasis nabantu ababephila nabo kungachazwa kufanele ngokuthi kuyisisekelo salokho namuhla esikubiza ngokuthi imithi yesimanje.