Lena ingxenye yesithupha ochungechungeni lwezingxenye eziyisikhombisa ze-“Phaphama!” ezikhuluma ngemibuso eyisikhombisa emlandweni weBhayibheli. Injongo iwukubonisa ukuthi iBhayibheli lithembekile futhi liphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu nokuthi linomyalezo wethemba ngokuphela kokuhlupheka okubangelwa ukubusa kabi kwabantu.

UPawulu wahamba emgwaqweni i-Appian Way

UJESU wasungula ubuKristu futhi abalandeli bakhe babusakaza kabanzi ngezinsuku zoMbuso waseRoma. Usengayibona imigwaqo yaseRoma, imisele yamanzi nezindawo eziyisikhumbuzo emazweni anjengeBrithani neGibhithe. Lezo zinsalela zeRoma zingokoqobo. Zisikhumbuza ukuthi uJesu nabaphostoli bakhe nabo babengokoqobo, njengoba kunjalo nangezinto abazisho nabazenza. Empeleni, uma uhamba ngomgwaqo wasendulo i-Appian Way, usuke uhamba endleleni umphostoli uPawulu ongumKristu okungenzeka wahamba ngayo lapho eya eRoma.—IzEnzo 28:15, 16.

Umlando Onokwethenjelwa

Ukulandisa kweBhayibheli okuphathelene noJesu nabafundi bakhe, kuhlanganisa nezenzakalo eziningi ezingokomlando zangekhulu lokuqala. Phawula ukuthi umlobi weBhayibheli uLuka uwuveza ngobuciko obunjani  unyaka okwenzeka ngawo izenzakalo ezimbili ezibaluleke kakhulu: ukuqala kwenkonzo kaJohane uMbhapathizi nokubhapathizwa kukaJesu okwamenza waba uKristu noma uMesiya. ULuka wabhala ukuthi lezo zenzakalo zenzeka “ngonyaka weshumi nanhlanu wokubusa kukaTiberiyu Khesari [29 C.E.], lapho uPontiyu Pilatu engumbusi waseJudiya, uHerode engumbusi wesifunda waseGalile.” (Luka 3:1-3, 21) ULuka ubuye akhulume nangezinye iziphathimandla ezine—uFiliphu (umfowabo kaHerode), uLisaniya, u-Anase noKayafase. Wonke la magama angu-7 aye afakazelwa izazi-mlando zezwe. Nokho, okwamanje ake sihlole uTiberiyu, uPilatu noHerode.

UTiberiyu Khesari ungomunye kwabaningi bababusi baseRoma okukhulunywa ngabo eVangelini likaLuka

UTiberiyu Khesari waziwa kakhulu, futhi kunemifanekiso ebonisa indlela ayebukeka ngayo. ISigungu esiphethe umbuso waseRoma samenza umbusi mhla zingu-15 ku-September ngo-14 C.E., lapho uJesu eneminyaka engaba ngu-15.

Umbhalo onegama likaPontiyu Pilatu

Igama LikaPontiyu Pilatu livela kanye nelikaTiberiyu ekulandiseni okungokomlando okwabhalwa isazi-mlando esingumRoma uTacitus ngemva nje kokuphothulwa kokulotshwa kweBhayibheli. Ngokuqondene negama elithi “amaKristu,” uTacitus wabhala: “UKristu, okususelwa kuye leli gama, wathola isijeziso esinzima komunye wababusi bethu, uPontiyu Pilatu, ngesikhathi sokubusa kukaTiberiyu.”

UHerode Antipase waziwa njengomuntu owakha idolobha laseThibheriya elingasoLwandle lwaseGalile. Kanti futhi wayehlala kulo leli dolobha. Cishe lapho uHerode ekhipha umyalo wokuba uJohane uMbhapathizi anqunywe ikhanda wayekulo leli dolobha.

Ukulandisa kweBhayibheli kukhuluma nangezenzakalo eziphawulekayo zangenkathi yeRoma. Likhuluma ngesikhathi sokuzalwa kukaJesu, iBhayibheli lithi: “Ngalezo zinsuku kwaphuma isinqumo kuKhesari Awugustu sokuba wonke umhlaba owakhiwe ubhaliswe; (lokhu kubhalisa kokuqala kwenzeka lapho uKhureniyu engumbusi waseSiriya;) bonke abantu bahamba bayobhaliswa, yilowo nalowo emzini wakubo.”—Luka 2:1-3.

UTacitus nesazi-mlando esingumJuda uJosephus bayakhuluma ngoKhureniyu. Isiqinisekiso sokuthi kwaba khona lokhu kubhalisa, siyatholakala emyalweni wombusi waseRoma ogcinwe emtatsheni wezincwadi waseBrithani. Ufundeka kanje: “Njengoba sesifikile isikhathi sokubalwa kwendlu ngendlu, kudingekile ukuyala bonke labo abahlala ngaphandle kwezifunda zakubo ngenxa yanoma yisiphi isizathu ukuba babuyele emakubo.”

 IBhayibheli likhuluma ‘nangendlala enkulu esikhathini sikaKlawudiyu [uMbusi waseRoma].’ (IzEnzo 11:28) Isazi-mlando sekhulu lokuqala uJosephus siyakufakazela lokhu kulandisa. Sabhala: “Indlala yabacindezela impela ngaleso sikhathi futhi abaningi bafa.”

Ngaphezu kwalokho, encwadini yezEnzo 18:2 iBhayibheli lithi “uKlawudiyu wayeyale wonke amaJuda ukuba amuke eRoma.” Lokhu kufakazelwa umlando wokuphila kukaKlawudiyu, owalotshwa isazi-mlando esingumRoma uSuetonius ngo-121 C.E. USuetonius uthi, uKlawudiyu “waxosha wonke amaJuda eRoma,” wenezela nokuthi ngenxa yokuthi amaJuda ayezonda amaKristu, “ayeqhubeka ebanga iziyaluyalu.”

IBhayibheli libika ukuthi cishe ngesikhathi sendlala okukhulunywe ngayo ngenhla, uHerode Agripha, ‘egqoke isembatho sobukhosi,’ wanikeza inkulumo emphakathini owawumazisa kakhulu owasabela ngokuthi: “Yizwi likankulunkulu, akulona elomuntu!” Ngemva kwalokho, iBhayibheli lithi, u-Agripha “wadliwa izibungu wafa.” (IzEnzo 12:21-23) UJosephus naye wabhala ngalesi senzakalo, enezela neminye imininingwane embalwa. Wabhala ukuthi u-Agripha wanikeza inkulumo “egqoke ingubo eyenziwe ngesiliva kuphela.” Wathi futhi u-Agripha ‘waba nobuhlungu obukhulu esiswini futhi bamqala ngendlela ehlukumeza kakhulu.’ UJosephus uthi uHerode wafa ezinsukwini ezinhlanu kamuva.

Isiprofetho Esinokwethenjelwa

IBhayibheli libuye libe neziprofetho ezibalulekile ezabhalwa futhi zagcwaliseka ngezikhathi zeRoma. Ngokwesibonelo, lapho uJesu engena eJerusalema, walila futhi wabikezela indlela amabutho amaRoma ayeyowubhubhisa ngayo lo muzi. UJesu wathi, ‘Uzofikelwa izinsuku lapho izitha zakho zizokwakha uthango nxazonke zakho ngezigxobo ezicijile. Ngeke zishiye tshe phezu kwetshe kuwe, ngoba awusiqondanga isikhathi sokuhlolwa kwakho.’—Luka 19:41-44.

Noma kunjalo, abalandeli bakaJesu babezoba nalo ithuba lokuphunyuka. Kanjani? UJesu wabanika umyalo oqondile kusasele isikhathi. Waxwayisa, “Lapho nibona iJerusalema lihaqwe amabutho akanisile, khona-ke yazini ukuthi ukuchithwa kwalo sekusondele. Khona-ke labo abaseJudiya mababalekele ezintabeni, abaphakathi kwalo [iJerusalema] baphume.” (Luka 21:20, 21) Kungenzeka ukuthi abalandeli bakaJesu babezibuza, ‘Siyobaleka kanjani emzini ovinjezelwe?’

UJosephus wakuloba okwenzeka. Ngo-66 C.E., lapho umbusi waseRoma ethatha intela eyayikweletwa amaJuda engcebweni yethempeli, amavukela-mbuso ayethukuthele abulala amabutho amaRoma, ngaleyo ndlela ebonisa ukuthi ayesezimele. Ngasekupheleni kwalowo nyaka, uCestius Gallus, umbusi waseSiriya ongumRoma, wahola amabutho angu-30 000 walibangisa ngaseningizimu wafika eJerusalema ngesikhathi somkhosi ongokwenkolo. UGallus wangena emizaneni yalo, waze waqala nokubhidliza udonga lwethempeli okwakucashe kulo amavukela-mbuso. Kungazelelwe, uGallus wahoxa ngesizathu esingaqondakali! AmaJuda ayejabule, ahlasela amabutho akhe ayesebuyela emuva.

AmaKristu athembekile awazange akhohliswe yilokhu kushintsha kwezinto. Aqaphela ukuthi ayesekubonile ukugcwaliseka kwesiprofetho sikaJesu esimangalisayo: Umuzi wawusanda kuzungezwa amabutho ahlomile! Manje, njengoba amabutho ayesehoxile, amaKristu athembekile asebenzisa leli thuba elivulekile lokubaleka. Amaningi aya ePhela, umuzi wabeZizwe owawungahilelekile kwezombangazwe osezintabeni ngaphesheya kweJordani.

Kwenzekani eJerusalema? Amabutho amaRoma abuya, eseholwa uVespasian nendodana yakhe uTitus—kulokhu sekunamasosha angu-60 000. Afinyelela emzini ngaphambi kwePhasika lika-70 C.E., avimbezela izakhamuzi nezihambi ezazize emkhosini. Amabutho aseRoma agawula ihlathi abe esakha udonga ngezingodo ezicijile, njengoba nje uJesu ayebikezele. Ngemva kwezinyanga ezinhlanu lo muzi wawa.

IKhothamo LikaTitus eRome eliyisikhumbuzo sokubhujiswa kweJerusalema ngo-70 C.E.

UTitus wayala ukuba ithempeli lilondolozwe, kodwa elinye isosha lalithungela ngomlilo labe selidilizwa kwangasala tshe phezu kwetshe—njengoba nje uJesu ayebikezele. Ngokusho kukaJosephus, kwafa amaJuda namaproselithe angaba ngu-1 100 000, iningi libulawa indlala nezifo kanti  abangu-97 000 bathunjwa. Abaningi bathunyelwa eRoma njengezigqila. Uma ungavakashela iRoma namuhla, ungayibona iColosseum yodumo, eyaqedelwa nguTitus ngemva kwempi neJudiya. Ungabona neKhothamo likaTitus eliyisikhumbuzo sokunqotshwa kweJerusalema. Ngempela, isiprofetho seBhayibheli sithembeke ngayo yonke imininingwane yaso. Yeka-ke ukuthi kubaluleke kangakanani ukuba sikunake lokho elikushoyo ngekusasa!

Ithemba Ongaqiniseka Ngalo

Lapho uJesu evele phambi koMbusi ongumRoma uPontiyu Pilatu, wakhuluma ngoMbuso noma uhulumeni ‘ongeyona ingxenye yaleli zwe.’ (Johane 18:36) Yilowo hulumeni ophakeme uJesu afundisa abalandeli bakhe ukuba bawuthandazele ngempela. Wathi, ‘Baba wethu osemazulwini, umbuso wakho mawuze. Intando yakho mayenzeke nasemhlabeni, njengasezulwini.’ (Mathewu 6:9, 10) Phawula ukuthi nguMbuso kaNkulunkulu oyobangela ukuba intando kaNkulunkulu yenziwe emhlabeni—hhayi owabantu abazidlayo nabomele igunya.

UJesu ubusa njengeNkosi kulowo Mbuso wasezulwini. Ngokuvumelana nenjongo kaNkulunkulu yokuqala, uyoguqula umhlaba ube yipharadesi lembulunga yonke.—Luka 23:43.

UMbuso kaNkulunkulu uyongenela nini ezindabeni zesintu? Ngemva kokuvuswa kwakhe, uJesu wanikeza impendulo lapho ekhuluma nomphostoli uJohane, owayeboshwe esiqhingini sasePhatmose ngesikhathi sokubusa koMbusi ongumRoma uDomitian, umfowabo kaTitus. UJesu wachaza: “Kukhona amakhosi ayisikhombisa ayisihlanu asewile, enye ikhona, enye ayikafiki, kodwa lapho ifika kumelwe ihlale isikhashana.”—IsAmbulo 17:10.

Ngesikhathi uJohane eloba lawo mazwi, “amakhosi” ayisihlanu noma imibuso yayisiwile: okuyiGibhithe, i-Asiriya, iBhabhiloni, amaMede namaPheresiya neGrisi. Lowo ‘okhona’ noma owawukhona ngesikhathi sikaJohane kwakuyiRoma. Ngakho munye owawusasele—umbuso wezwe wokugcina emlandweni weBhayibheli. Kwakuyimuphi? Wawuzobusa isikhathi esingakanani? Le mibuzo izophendulwa kumagazini we-Phaphama! olandelayo.