Lena ingxenye yesihlanu ochungechungeni lwezingxenye eziyisikhombisa ze-“Phaphama!” ezikhuluma ngemibuso eyisikhombisa emlandweni weBhayibheli. Injongo iwukubonisa ukuthi iBhayibheli lithembekile futhi liphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu nokuthi linomyalezo wethemba ngokuphela kokuhlupheka okubangelwa ukubusa kabi kwabantu.

NGEKHULU lesine B.C.E., insizwa yaseMakhedoniya egama layo lingu-Alexander yenza iGrisi * yavelela emlandweni wezwe. Empeleni, yenza iGrisi yaba umbuso wezwe wesihlanu emlandweni weBhayibheli futhi ekugcineni yabizwa ngo-Alexander Omkhulu. Imibuso yomhlaba eyayandulele kwakuyiGibhithe, i-Asiriya, iBhabhiloni kanye naMamede namaPheresiya.

Ngemva kokufa kuka-Alexander, umbuso wakhe wahlukana futhi waphelelwa amandla. Noma kunjalo, ithonya lendlela yokuphila, ulimi, inkolo nefilosofi kwaqhubeka isikhathi eside ngemva kokuba lo mbuso uwile.

Cishe kusasele iminyaka engu-200 ngaphambili, isiprofetho seBhayibheli sakhomba ku-Alexander Omkhulu

Umlando Onokwethenjelwa

IBhayibheli alisho ukuthi bakhona yini abaprofethi bakaNkulunkulu ababekhona phakathi nale nkathi yokudlondlobala kweGrisi, futhi akukho zincwadi zeBhayibheli eziphefumulelwe ezalotshwa ngaleso sikhathi. Noma kunjalo, iGrisi iyavela esiprofethweni seBhayibheli. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki, evame ukubizwa ngokuthi ITestamente Elisha, iyakhuluma ngethonya lamaGreki. Empeleni, kwa-Israyeli kwakuneqoqo lemizana eyishumi yomphakathi wamaGreki elibizwa ngokuthi iDekapholi, igama lesiGreki elisho ukuthi “imizi eyishumi.” (Mathewu 4:25; Marku 5:20; 7:31) IBhayibheli likhuluma izikhathi eziningana ngalesi sifundazwe, umlando wezwe nezinsalela ezihlaba umxhwele zezinkundla, amathempeli nezindawo zokugeza kuyakufakazeka ukuthi le ndawo yayikhona.

Kanti neBhayibheli libhekisela kaningi  endleleni yokuphila nasezinkolelweni zamaGreki, ikakhulukazi encwadini yezEnzo eyabhalwa udokotela uLuka. Cabangela lezi zibonelo ezimbalwa:

Lichaza izenzakalo zaphakathi nohambo lomphostoli uPawulu oluya e-Athene ngo-50 C.E., iBhayibheli lithi lowo muzi ‘wawugcwele izithombe.’ (IzEnzo 17:16) Ubufakazi obungokomlando buyakuqinisekisa ukuthi i-Athene nezindawo eziyizungezile yayigcwele izithombe nezakhiwo zenkolo.

IzEnzo 17:21 zithi, “bonke abase-Athene nabezinye izizwe ababengabafokazi lapho babechitha isikhathi sabo esikhululekile bengenzi lutho ngaphandle kokuxoxa noma ukulalela okuthile okusha.” Imibhalo kaThucydides noDemosthenes iyakufakazela ukuthi abase-Athene babehlale belibele ukuxoxa nokuphikisana.

IBhayibheli likusho ngokuqondile ukuthi ‘izazi zefilosofi ezingama-Epikhuru nezingamaStoyiku zaxoxa [noPawulu] zimphikisa,’ futhi abanye baze bamyisa e-Areyophagu, befuna ukuzwa okwengeziwe ngalokhu ayezokusho. (IzEnzo 17:18, 19) I-Athene yayaziwa ngezazi zayo eziningi zefilosofi ezihlanganisa ama-Epikhuru namaStoyiku.

I-altare elinikelwe ‘kunkulunkulu ongaziwa’

UPawulu ukhuluma nge-altare lase-Athene elalibhalwe ukuthi “Kunkulunkulu Ongaziwa.” (IzEnzo 17:23) Ama-altare ayenikelwe kunkulunkulu ongaziwa kungenzeka ayakhiwe ngu-Epimenides waseKhrethe.

Ekhuluma nabase-Athene, uPawulu ucaphuna amagama athi “ngoba futhi siyinzalo yakhe,” engawabhekiseli embongini eyodwa nje kuphela, kodwa ‘ezimbongini ezithile zakubo.’ (IzEnzo 17:28) Kusobala ukuthi lezi zimbongi kwakungu-Aratus noCleanthes.

Kuyafaneleka ukuba esinye isazi siphethe ngokuthi: “Kimina, ukulandisa okuphathelene nohambo lukaPawulu lokuya e-Athene kubonakala sengathi kwabhalwa umuntu ongufakazi wokuzibonela.” Kungashiwo okufanayo nangencazelo yeBhayibheli yalokho uPawulu abhekana nakho e-Efesu, e-Asia Minor. Ngekhulu lokuqala C.E., lo muzi wawusanamathele enkolweni yobuqaba yamaGreki, ephawuleka kakhulu ngokukhulekelwa kukankulunkulukazi u-Arthemisi.

Umfanekiso kankulunkulukazi wase-Efesu u-Arthemisi

Ithempeli lika-Arthemisi, elingesinye sezimangaliso  ezingu-7 zezwe lasendulo, kukhulunywa ngalo izikhathi eziningana encwadini yezEnzo. Ngokwesibonelo, sitshelwa ukuthi ukushumayela kukaPawulu e-Efesu kwamthukuthelisa kakhulu umkhandi wesiliva okuthiwa uDemetriyu, owayenebhizinisi elichumayo lokwenza izithombe zesiliva zika-Arthemisi. Ethukuthele, uDemetriyu wathi ‘lo Pawulu usethonye isixuku esikhulu wasiphendulela komunye umbono, ethi labo abenziwe ngezandla ababona onkulunkulu.’ (IzEnzo 19:23-28) UDemetriyu wabe esegqugquzela isixuku esithukuthele esabe sesiqala ukumemeza sithi: “Mkhulu u-Arthemisi wabase-Efesu!”

Namuhla ungawavakashela amanxiwa ase-Efesu nendawo okwakwakhiwe kuyo ithempeli lika-Arthemisi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imibhalo yasendulo nge-Efesu iyakufakazela ukuthi kwakwenziwa izithombe ezazidumisa onkulunkulukazi nokuthi kuneqembu labakhandi besiliva elalimatasa kulo muzi.

Isiprofetho Esinokwethenjelwa

Cishe kusasele iminyaka engu-200 ngaphambi kuka-Alexander Omkhulu, uDaniyeli umprofethi kaJehova uNkulunkulu wabhala lokhu ngokuphathelene nokubuswa kwezwe: ‘Bheka! kwakukhona impongo ivela entshonalanga ebusweni bawo wonke umhlaba, futhi yayingawuthinti umhlaba. Ngokuqondene nale mpongo, kwakunophondo olugqamile phakathi kwamehlo ayo. Futhi yaqhubeka iza lonke lelo banga iqondé enqameni enezimpondo ezimbili, yeza kuyo igijima ngokufutheka kwayo okunamandla. Futhi yaqala ukuyishaya inqama yephula izimpondo zayo ezimbili, futhi inqama ayibanga namandla okuma phambi kwayo. Ngakho yayiphonsa emhlabathini yayinyathela. Impongo yona, yaziphakamisa ngokwedlulele; kodwa ngokushesha lapho iba namandla, uphondo olukhulu lwaphuka, kwavela ngokugqamile ezine esikhundleni salo, zibheke emimoyeni yomine yamazulu.’—Daniyeli 8:5-8.

IBhayibheli lakubikezela ngokunembile ukunqoba kuka-Alexander Omkhulu nokuhlukana kombuso wakhe

La mazwi ayebhekisele kubani? UDaniyeli ngokwakhe uyaphendula: “Inqama oyibonile enezimpondo ezimbili imelela amakhosi aseMediya nasePheresiya. Kanti impongo enoboya obude imelela inkosi yaseGrisi; ngokuqondene nophondo olukhulu olwaluphakathi kwamehlo ayo, lumelela inkosi yokuqala.”—Daniyeli 8:20-22.

Cabanga nje! Phakathi nenkathi yokubusa kombuso wezwe waseBhabhiloni, iBhayibheli labikezela ukuthi umbuso wezwe owawuyolandela kwakuyoba owamaMede namaPheresiya bese kuba iGrisi. Kanti njengoba kuphawuliwe ekuqaleni, iBhayibheli lakusho ngokuthe ngqo ukuthi ‘ngokushesha lapho luba namandla, uphondo olukhulu’—u-Alexander—‘luyophuka’ futhi esikhundleni salo kube nezinye ezine, lanezela nokuthi akekho enzalweni yakhe owayeyomlandela.—Daniyeli 11:4.

Leso siprofetho sagcwaliseka ngayo yonke imininingwane. U-Alexander waba yinkosi ngo-336 B.C.E., futhi phakathi neminyaka engu-7 ebusa, wanqoba inkosi yasePheresiya enamandla uDariyu wesithathu. Ngemva kwalokho, u-Alexander waqhubeka nokwandisa umbuso wakhe kwaze kwaba yilapho efa ngaphambi kwesikhathi ngo-323 B.C.E., eneminyaka engu-32 ubudala. Akekho owalandela u-Alexander njengombusi ngokugcwele, ngisho nasenzalweni yakhe. Kunalokho, ojenene bakhe abane abavelele—uLysimachus, uCassander, uSeleucus, no-Ptolemy—“bazibeka njengamakhosi” bawuthatha umbuso, ngokusho kwencwadi ethi The Hellenistic Age.

 Phakathi nomkhankaso wakhe, u-Alexander wagcwalisa nezinye iziprofetho zeBhayibheli. Ngokwesibonelo, abaprofethi uHezekeli noZakhariya, abaphila ngekhulu lesi-7 nelesi-6 B.C.E., babikezela ngokubhujiswa komuzi waseThire. (Hezekeli 26:3-5, 12; 27:32-36; Zakariya 9:3, 4) UHezekeli waze wabhala ukuthi amatshe awo nothuli kwakuyophonswa ‘ekujuleni kwamanzi.’ Ingabe lawo mazwi agcwaliseka?

U-Alexander wagcwalisa isiprofetho seBhayibheli lapho esebenzisa imfucumfucu yomuzi omdala waseThire ukuze akhe umzila oya emzini oyisiqhingi

Cabanga ngalokho okwenziwa amabutho ka-Alexander phakathi nokuvimbezela kwawo iThire ngo-332 B.C.E. Aphala amanxiwa omuzi omdala waseThire futhi alahla lowo doti olwandle ukuze akhe umzila odlulela emzini oyisiqhingi waseThire. Leli qhinga laphumelela, futhi iThire yanqotshwa. Umhloli wamazwe wekhulu le-19 owayehlola le ndawo uthi: “Iziprofetho ezimelene neThire zigcwalisekile kuhlanganise nayo yonke imininingwane yazo emincane.” *

Ithemba Ongaqiniseka Ngalo

Ukunqoba kuka-Alexander akuzange kukulethe ukuthula nokulondeka emhlabeni. Ngemva kokuhlaziya inkathi yokubusa kweGrisi yasendulo esinye isazi saphawula: “Isimo esiyinhloko sokuphila kwabantu abavamile . . . sasishintshe kancane.” Lesi simo besilokhu siphandaphindeka kuwo wonke umlando futhi sifakazela amazwi eBhayibheli athi ‘umuntu uye wabusa umuntu kwaba ukulimala kwakhe.’—UmShumayeli 8:9.

Nokho, ukubusa kabi, ngeke kuqhubeke unomphela ngoba uNkulunkulu usemise uhulumeni ophakeme kunanoma yimuphi owenziwe umuntu. Njengoba ubizwa ngokuthi uMbuso kaNkulunkulu, uyothatha indawo yabo bonke ohulumeni babantu, futhi izikhonzi zawo ziyojabulela ukuthula nokulondeka okuhlala njalo.—Isaya 25:6; 65:21, 22; Daniyeli 2:35, 44; IsAmbulo 11:15.

INkosi yoMbuso kaNkulunkulu, uJesu Kristu. Ngokungafani nababusi abazidlayo nabomele igunya abangabantu, uJesu ushukunyiswa uthando ngoNkulunkulu nangesintu. Umhubi wabikezela lokhu ngaye: “Iyokhulula ompofu okhalela usizo, nohluphekile nanoma ubani ongenamsizi. Iyohawukela ophansi nompofu, imiphefumulo yabampofu iyoyisindisa. Iyokhulula umphefumulo wabo ekucindezelweni nasebudloveni.”—IHubo 72:12-14.

Ingabe uwuhlobo loMbusi olufunayo? Uma kunjalo, uyobe wenza kahle ngokucabangela umbuso wezwe wesithupha emlandweni weBhayibheli—iRoma. Ngokuqinisekile, kwakuphakathi nenkathi yalo mbuso wamaRoma lapho uMsindisi ezalwa futhi eba negalelo elingasoze lalibaleka emlandweni wesintu. Sicela ufunde isihloko sesithupha salolu chungechunge, ozosithola kulo magazini olandelayo.

^ isig. 4 IGrisi okukhulunywa ngayo kulesi sihloko eyasendulo ngaphambi kwekhulu lokuqala futhi imingcele yayo ayifani neyeGrisi yanamuhla.

^ isig. 23 Njengoba nje uHezekeli ayebikezele, ukunqotshwa kokuqala kweThire kwenzeka lapho kusabusa inkosi yaseBhabhiloni uNebukhadirezari. (Hezekeli 26:7) Ngemva kwalokho, lo muzi waphinde wavuselelwa. Lo muzi owakhiwe kabusha wabhujiswa ngu-Alexander ngaleyo ndlela egcwalisa amazwi abaprofethi ngayo yonke imininingwane emincane.