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Incwadi Ongayethemba—Ingxenye 1

IGibhithe Emlandweni WeBhayibheli

Incwadi Ongayethemba—Ingxenye 1

IBhayibheli lalotshwa phakathi nenkathi eyiminyaka engaba ngu-1 600. Umlando nesiprofetho salo uhlobene nemibuso yomhlaba eyisikhombisa: iGibhithe, i-Asiriya, iBhabhiloni, amaMede namaPheresiya, iGrisi, iRoma bese kuba amaNgisi namaMelika. Kuzocatshangelwa ngamunye kule mibuso ochungechungeni lwezihloko eziyisikhombisa. Iyini injongo yalokhu? Ukubonisa ukuthi iBhayibheli lithembekile futhi liphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu nokuthi linomyalezo wethemba ngokuphela kokuhlupheka okubangelwa ukubusa kabi kwabantu.

IGIBHITHE, elidume ngemibhoshongo yalo noMfula iNayile, laba umbuso womhlaba wokuqala emlandweni weBhayibheli. Ngaphansi kwamaphiko alo kwavela isizwe sakwa-Israyeli. UMose, owaloba izincwadi ezinhlanu zokuqala zeBhayibheli, wazalelwa eGibhithe futhi wafundiswa khona. Ingabe umlando wezwe nemivubukulo kuyavumelana nalokho okwabhalwa uMose ngalelo zwe lasendulo? Cabanga ngezibonelo ezilandelayo.

Linomlando Onokwethenjwa

Iziqu namagama ayesetshenziswa.

Umlando onembile uvame ukuba nemininingwane—amasiko, indlela yokuziphatha, amagama neziqu okwakubizwa ngazo izikhulu, njalonjalo. UGenesise no-Eksodusi, izincwadi ezimbili zokuqala zeBhayibheli, ingabe zinembile kule ndaba? Ngokuphathelene nokulandisa okukuGenesise ngoJosefa, indodana yenzalamizi uJakobe, kuhlanganise nencwadi yeBhayibheli ka-Eksodusi, encwadini yakhe ethi New Light on Hebrew Origins, uJ. Garrow Duncan uthi: “[Umlobi weBhayibheli] wayejwayelene kahle kakhulu nolimi lwaseGibhithe, amasiko, izinkolelo, inqubo yasezinkantolo, indlela yokuziphatha nezikhulu zakhona.” Uyanezela: “[Umlobi] usebenzisa iziqu ezifanele nangendlela ezazisetshenziswa ngayo ngaleyo nkathi. . . . Empeleni ayikho into eyifakazela ngokugculisayo imininingwane yolwazi ngezinto zaseGibhithe eTestamenteni Elidala nokunemba kwabalobi, ukwedlula ukusetshenziswa kwegama likaFaro ngezikhathi ezihlukahlukene.” UDuncan ubuye athi: “Lapho [umlobi] ekhuluma ngabalingiswa abavela phambi kukaFaro, ubenza baziphathe ngendlela efanele futhi basebenzise nolimi olufanele lapho bephambi kwenkosi.”

Izitini ezomiswe ngelanga ezenziwe ngotshani zisasetshenziswa nanamuhla eGibhithe

Ukwenza izitini.

Ngenkathi eyizigqila eGibhithe, ama-Israyeli ayenza izitini ngobumba oluhlanganiswe notshani, obabenza izitini ziqine. (Eksodusi 1:14; 5:6-18) * Eminyakeni ethile edlule, incwadi ethi Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries yathi: “Zimbalwa kakhulu izindawo ezinomlando wokwenza izitini ukwedlula iGibhithe, lapho namanje kusakhiwa khona ngezitini ezomiswe ngelanga.” Le ncwadi ibuye ikhulume “ngomkhuba waseGibhithe wokusetshenziswa kotshani lapho kwenziwa izitini,” ngaleyo ndlela inezela lo  mniningwane ovumelana nokulandisa okuseBhayibhelini.

Ezinye zezinto zokuphuca izinwele ezazisetshenziswa abaseGibhithe—insingo nesibuko

Ukuphuca izinwele.

Amadoda angamaHebheru asendulo ayeba nentshebe. Kodwa, iBhayibheli lisitshela ukuthi uJosefa waphuca izinwele ngaphambi kokuvela phambi kukaFaro. (Genesise 41:14) Wayephucelani? Ukuze ahambisane nosiko-mpilo lwaseGibhithe, olwalubheka ukuba nentshebe njengophawu lokungcola. Incwadi ethi Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt ithi, “[AbaseGibhithe] babeziqhlenya ngokuhlala bephucile.” Empeleni, emathuneni aseGibhithe kuye kwatholakala izinsingo, izinto zokuncwela amashiya, izibuko kuhlanganise namabhokisi okufakwa kuwo lezi zinto. Kusobala ukuthi uMose wayengumlobi oqikelelayo ekunikezeni imininingwane. Kungashiwo okufanayo nangabanye abalobi beBhayibheli ababhala ngezenzakalo eziphathelene neGibhithe lasendulo.

Ezohwebo.

UJeremiya owaloba izincwadi ezimbili zamaKhosi, wanikeza imininingwane eqondile ngokuphathelene nokuhwebelana ngamahhashi nezinqola kweNkosi uSolomoni nabaseGibhithe kanye namaHeti. Inqola ngayinye yayibiza ‘izinhlamvu zesiliva ezingamakhulu ayisithupha, ihhashi liyizinhlamvu zesiliva eziyikhulu namashumi amahlanu,’ noma ingxenye eyodwa kwezine yemali yokuthenga inqola, ngokusho kweBhayibheli.—1 AmaKhosi 10:29.

Ngokwencwadi ethi Archaeology and the Religion of Israel, isazi-mlando esingumGreki uHerodotus nalokho okwatholakala ngemivubukulo, kufakazela ukuthi ukuhwebelana ngamahhashi nangezinqola kwakuyinto eyayenzeka phakathi nokubusa kukaSolomoni. Empeleni, le ncwadi iyazifakazela izibalo eziseBhayibhelini lapho ithi, “inani elimisiwe lokuhwebelana, kwakungamahhashi amane ngenqola eyodwa yaseGibhithe.”

Ezempi.

UJeremiya no-Ezra baphinde bakhulume ngokuhlaselwa kukaJuda yinkosi uFaro okuthiwa uShishaki, baphawule ngokukhethekile ukuthi kwenzeka “ngonyaka wesihlanu weNkosi uRehobowamu,” noma ngo-993 B.C.E. (1 AmaKhosi 14:25-28; 2 IziKronike 12:1-12) Kwaphela isikhathi eside kuyiBhayibheli kuphela elikhuluma ngalokho kuhlaselwa kukaJuda. Kwabe sekutholakala umdwebo onombhalo odongeni lwethempeli laseGibhithe eKarnak (iThebes yasendulo).

Lo mdwebo uwumfanekiso kaShishaki emi phambi kukankulunkulu u-Amoni, ingalo yakhe iphakeme sengathi ushaya abantu abathunjiwe. Kanti kukhona namagama emizi yakwa-Israyeli eyanqotshwa, eminingi yayo eyizindawo iBhayibheli elikhuluma ngazo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kule ncwadi kukhulunywa ‘ngeNsimu Ka-Abrahama’ —okuwumbhalo wokuqala emibhalweni yaseGibhithe obhekisela kuyinzalamizi yaseBhayibhelini u-Abrahama.—Genesise 25:7-10.

Kusobala ukuthi abalobi beBhayibheli abazange babhale insumansumane. Njengoba babazi ukuthi bayolandisa kuNkulunkulu, babhala iqiniso ngisho nalapho ukwenza kanjalo kwakungelula—njengasendabeni yokunqotshwa kukaJuda nguShishaki. Ukungagwegwesi okunjalo kuphambene kakhulu nokushintsha amaqiniso endaba, nokulandisa okuyihaba kwababhali basendulo abangamaGibhithe, ababenqaba ukubhala noma yini okwakungenzeka ingabadumisi ababusi noma abantu bakubo.

Isiprofetho Esinokwethenjelwa

NguJehova uNkulunkulu kuphela, uMlobi weBhayibheli ongabikezela ikusasa ngokunembile ngaso sonke isikhathi. Ngokwesibonelo, phawula lokho uJeremiya aphefumulelwa ukuba akubikezele ngokuphathelene namadolobha amabili aseGibhithe—iNofi (Memphis) neNo (Thebes). INofi yake yaba isikhungo sezohwebo, ezombangazwe nesizinda senkolo. Kodwa uNkulunkulu wathi: “INofi ngokwalo liyoba yinto eshaqisayo nje futhi impela liyothungelwa ngomlilo, ukuze lingabi nowakhile kulo.” (Jeremiya 46:19) Yilokho kanye okwenzeka. Incwadi ethi In the Steps of Moses the Lawgiver ithi “amanxiwa amaningi aseNofi” ayenqotshwe ama-Arabhu, awasebenzisa njengendawo ayezitholela kuyo amatshe. Le ncwadi iphinde inezele ukuthi namuhla “esiyingini esasiyileli dolobha lasendulo akukho ngisho nelilodwa itshe elikhulu phezu kwenhlabathi emnyama.”

Lesi sithombe esikhulu esiwile esatholakala eduze neNofi sasingamamitha angu-12 ubude

IThebes, ngaphambili eyayibizwa ngeNo-amon noma iNo, nonkulunkulu bayo abangenamandla yabhekana nesimo esifanayo. Ngokuphathelene naleli dolobha elake laba yinhloko-dolobha yaseGibhithe nesikhungo sokukhulekela unkulunkulu u-Amoni, uJehova wathi: ‘Bheka ngiyamnaka u-Amoni, noFaro neGibhithe nonkulunkulu balo. Futhi ngiyobanikela esandleni sikaNebukhadirezari inkosi yaseBhabhiloni.’ (Jeremiya 46:25, 26) Njengoba kwakuprofethiwe, inkosi yaseBhabhiloni yanqoba iGibhithe nedolobha lalo elidumile iNo-amon. Ngemva kokuba umbusi wasePheresiya uCambyses II naye ehlasele leli dolobha ngo-525 B.C.E., laqala ukuwohloka, laba amanxiwa ngokuphelele lapho selihlaselwa amaRoma. Ngempela, ukunemba kwesiprofetho kwenza iBhayibheli libe sezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu kunanoma iyiphi enye incwadi, kusenze sibe nethemba ngalokho elikushoyo ngekusasa lethu.

Linethemba Ongabambelela Kulo

Isiprofetho sokuqala esiseBhayibhelini salotshwa uMose phakathi nesikhathi sokubusa kweGibhithe umhlaba. * Lesi siprofetho esikuGenesise 3:15, sithi uNkulunkulu uyoveza “inzalo,”  eyayiyochoboza uSathane “nenzalo” yakhe—okuyilabo abalandela izindlela ezimbi zikaSathane. (Johane 8:44; 1 Johane 3:8) “Inzalo” kaNkulunkulu eyinhloko yaba uMesiya, uJesu Kristu.—Luka 2:9-14.

Ukubusa kukaKristu kuyogcwala umhlaba, ngoba uyosusa bonke ububi nokucindezela kohulumeni babantu. Ngeke ‘umuntu aphinde abuse umuntu kube ukulimala kwakhe.’ (UmShumayeli 8:9) Ngaphezu kwalokho, njengoJoshuwa wasendulo, owahola u-Israyeli emyisa eZweni Lesithembiso, uJesu uyohola ngokuphepha “isixuku esikhulu” sabantu abesaba uNkulunkulu asiyise “Ezweni Lesithembiso” elingcono kakhulu—umhlaba ohlanziwe oyoguqulwa ube yipharadesi.—IsAmbulo 7:9, 10, 14, 17; Luka 23:43.

Lelo themba eliyigugu lisikhumbuza esinye isiprofetho esalotshwa ngenkathi yeGibhithe lasendulo. Njengoba sitholakala encwadini kaJobe 33:24, 25 lesi siprofetho sithi, uNkulunkulu uyokhulula abantu ngisho ‘nasemgodini,’ noma ethuneni ngovuko. Yebo, ngaphandle nje kwalabo abayosinda embubhisweni ezayo yabantu ababi, izigidi eziningi ezifile ziyovuselwa ekuphileni zinethuba lokuphila phakade ePharadesi emhlabeni. (IzEnzo 24:15) IsAmbulo 21:3, 4 sithi: “Itende likaNkulunkulu likanye nabantu. Uyosula zonke izinyembezi emehlweni abo, ukufa ngeke kusaba khona, noma ukulila noma ukukhala noma ubuhlungu ngeke kusaba khona.”

Umlando nesiprofetho esinokwethenjwa—leyo ndaba kuzoxoxwa ngayo esihlokweni esilandelayo salolu chungechunge, esiyogxila kuyi-Asiriya lasendulo, umbuso womhlaba owalandela iGibhithe.

^ isig. 7 Uma ungenalo iBhayibheli, ungabhalela ekhelini elifanele kwasekhasini 5, noma uye engosini ethi www.watchtower.org. Ngaphezu kwalokho, le ngosi inezincwadi zeBhayibheli ngezilimi ezingaphezu kuka-380.

^ isig. 18 Isiprofetho esikuGenesise 3:15 sashiwo uNkulunkulu ensimini yase-Edene kamuva salotshwa uMose.