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Ingabe Izinto Eziphilayo Zadalwa??

Ubani Owklama Kuqala?

Ubani Owklama Kuqala?

Eminyakeni yamuva ososayensi nonjiniyela baye bavumela izitshalo nezilwane ukuba zibafundise. (Jobe 12:7, 8) Ukuze bakhe izinto ezintsha futhi bathuthukise esezikhona kakade, bayacwaninga bese bekopela izici ezithile zezinto ezidaliwe—okuwumkhakha obizwa ngokuthi i-biomimetics. Njengoba ufunda izibonelo ezilandelayo, zibuze, ‘Ubani ngempela okufanele athole udumo ngale miklamo?’

 Bafunda Emaphikweni Omkhomo

Umkhomo ungabafundisani abaklami bezindiza? Kubonakala sengathi bangafunda lukhulu. Umkhomo osukhulile unesisindo esingamathani angaba ngu-30—okuyisisindo seloli eligcwele nswí—futhi unomzimba oqinile namaphiko amakhulu. Lesi silwane esingamamitha angu-12 ubude sishesha ngendlela ephawulekayo emanzini.

Okwabahlaba umxhwele kakhulu abacwaningi yindlela lesi silwane esinomzimba oqinile esikwazi ngayo ukujikajika endaweni encane. Babona ukuthi imfihlo isendleleni amaphiko omkhomo akheke ngayo. Ingaphambili lamaphiko alibushelelezi njengephiko lendiza, kodwa limazengazenga, linamaqhubu alandelanayo okuthiwa ama-tubercle.

Njengoba umkhomo utshuza emanzini, la maqhubu andisa ijubane lokukhuphuka okwenza ungashoni phansi. Kanjani? Lapho lichaza lokhu, iphephabhuku i-Natural History lithi la maqhubu enza amanzi ajikeleze ngokushesha nangokuhleleka phezu kwamaphiko, ngisho noma umkhomo utshuza ukhuphuka emanzini.10

Ubani ongumnikazi wendalo?

Abacwaningi bangakusebenzisa kanjani ngokoqobo lokhu? Kubonakala sengathi amaphiko ezindiza aklanywe njengawemikhomo abengadinga imishini embalwa kakhulu yokulawula umoya. La maphiko abengaphepha kakhulu, kube lula nokuwanakekela. Isazi sokusebenza kwemisipha uJohn Long sikholelwa ukuthi ngelinye ilanga “singase sibone zonke izindiza zohlobo lwe-jet zinamaqhubu afuze awamaphiko emikhomo.”11

Balingisa Amaphiko E-seagull

Yiqiniso, amaphiko ezindiza ayafana nawezinyoni. Kodwa muva nje onjiniyela sebevele basampula endleleni abalingisa ngayo amaphiko ezinyoni. I-New Scientist iyabika: “Abacwaningi e-University of Florida baye bakha indiza engagitshelwa muntu elawulwa ikude ekwazi ukuntweza emoyeni, itshuze ishone phansi ibuye ikhuphuke njenge-seagull.”12

 Ama-seagull enza le migilingwane yasemoyeni ngokulokhu evula abuye avale amaphiko awo. Lo magazini uthi: “Le ndiza engamayintshi angu-24 [amasentimitha angu-60] inomshini omncane olawula uxhaxha lwezinsimbi ezinyakazisa amaphiko ayo,” okuyindlela asebenza ngayo namaphiko e-seagull. La maphiko aklanywe ngobuhlakani enza le ndiza encane ikwazi ukuma emoyeni ibuye yehle phakathi kwamabhilidi amade. Izikhulu ezithile zezempi zimagange ukwakha indiza elawuleka kalula ngale ndlela eziyoyisebenzisa ekuthungatheni izikhali zamakhemikhali noma zamagciwane abulalayo emadolobheni amakhulu.

Balingisa umlenze we-seagull

I-seagull ayigodoli ize ibe iqhwa ngisho noma imi eqhweni. Le nyoni izigcina kanjani ifudumele? Imfihlo yalokhu isimiso esitholakala ezilwaneni eziningana ezihlala ezindaweni ezibandayo. Sibizwa ngokuthi isimiso sokufudumeza umzimba.

Ukushisa kusuka ngapha kuye ngale, umzimba uhlale ufudumele. Ukubanda kugcina ezinyaweni

Sisebenza kanjani lesi simiso? Ukuze usiqonde, cabanga ngamapayipi amabili amanzi aboshelwe ndawonye. Kwelinye ipayipi kugeleza amanzi ashisayo, kwelinye abandayo. Uma amanzi ashisayo nabandayo eya ohlangothini olulodwa, yingxenye yokushisa okuvela emanzini ashisayo ezodlulela kwabandayo. Kodwa uma amanzi ashisayo nabandayo eya ezinhlangothini ezingefani, cishe konke ukushisa okuvela emanzini ashisayo kuyodlulela kwabandayo.

Lapho i-seagull imi eqhweni, lesi simiso esisemilenzeni sifudumeza igazi lapho likhuphuka lisuka ezinyaweni ezibandayo. Sigcina umzimba wale nyoni ufudumele futhi senze izinyawo zayo zingagodoli. U-Arthur P. Fraas, unjiniyela wemishini nezindiza, wachaza lesi simiso “njengesimiso esikwazi ukuzivuselela ngendlela emangalisayo.”13 Siseqophelweni eliphezulu kangangokuba onjiniyela baye bakopela kuso.

 Ubani Ofanelwe Udumo?

Imoto ekwazi ukumelana nomoya eklanywe njenge-boxfish

I-National Aeronautics and Space Administration ibiqhubeka yenza irobhothi elinemilenze eminingi elihamba njengofezela, futhi onjiniyela eFinland sebewakhile kakade ugandaganda onemilenze eyisithupha okwazi ukucaca uye ngalé kwezinto eziphambi kwawo njengoba nje kwenza isinambuzane esikhulu. Abanye abacwaningi baklame indwangu enezinto ezincane eziphephezelayo ezilingisa indlela izigaxa zikaphayini ezivuleka zibuye zivaleke ngayo. Uma umuntu eyigqokile akagodoli kakhulu noma ashiselwe ngokweqile. Enye imboni yezimoto yenza imoto ekwazi ukumelana nomoya eklanywe njengenhlanzi i-boxfish, yona ehamba kalula emanzini. Kanti abanye abacwaningi bahlola ukwakheka kwamagobolondo enhlanzi i-abalone okuyenza ingalimali lapho ishayiseka, ngenjongo yokwakha izivikelo zomzimba ezilula kodwa eziqinile.

Igobolondo i-abalone

Indalo inikeze abantu imiqondo eminingi kangangokuthi abacwaningi baye bakha isimiso se-computer esinokwaziswa okuningi ngezimiso ezihlukahlukene zezinto eziphilayo. I-Economist ithi ososayensi bangacwaninga kulesi simiso ukuze bathole “izixazululo ezingokwemvelo zezinkinga ezisemiklamweni yabo.” Kuthiwa izinto eziphilayo zingabanikazi balezi zimiso ezingokwemvelo. Ngokuvamile, umnikazi wento kuba umuntu noma inkampani egunyazwe ngokomthetho njengomsunguli womqondo othile noma umshini othile. Uma ichaza leli qoqo lokwaziswa, i-Economist ithi: “Uma abacwaningi bethi izinto eziphilayo zingabanikazi balezi zimiso ezingokwemvelo okususelwa kuzo izinto eziklanywayo, empeleni bamane bagcizelela ukuthi yindalo engumnikazi.”14

Ososayensi bacwaninga ngokwakheka kwamagobolondo e-abalone ayenza ingalimali lapho ishayiseka

Indalo yayithathaphi yonke le miqondo emihle kangaka? Abacwaningi abaningi bebengathi le miklamo emihle ebonakala endalweni yavela ngenqubo yokuziphendukela kwemvelo eyathatha izigidi zeminyaka. Nokho, abanye abacwaningi bafinyelela esiphethweni esihlukile. Ephephandabeni i-New York Times ka-February 7, 2005, isazi sezinto ezincane kakhulu eziphilayo uMichael J. Behe, sabhala: “Ubufakazi obunamandla bomklamo [emvelweni] busenza siphethe ngale ndlela egculisayo: Uma umklamo othile ubonakala ufana nedada, uhamba njengalo futhi ukhala njengalo, futhi kungekho bufakazi obuphikisana  nalobo, khona-ke, sinesizathu esiqinile sokuphetha ngokuthi lowo mklamo uyidada.” Wayesho ukuthini? “Umklamo akufanele unganakwa ngoba nje uwumklamo ojwayelekile.”15

Isigcilikisha singabambelela ezindaweni ezishelelayo sisebenzisa amandla asemangqamuzaneni

Ngokuqinisekile, unjiniyela oklama iphiko lendiza eliphephile futhi elisebenza kahle kungafaneleka ukuba anikezwe udumo ngalowo mklamo wakhe. Ngokufanayo, umsunguli wendwangu ethambile noma imoto esebenza kahle—kufanele athole udumo ngomklamo wakhe. Empeleni, umuntu owakha izinto azikopele emklamweni womunye umuntu kodwa angamnikezi lowo mklami udumo angase abhekwe njengesigebengu.

Manje cabanga ngala maqiniso: Abacwaningi abafunde bagogoda basebenzisa izimiso zendalo ukuze baxazulule izinkinga ezixakile zobunjiniyela. Kodwa abanye bangathi lokhu kuhlakanipha okubonakala endalweni kwavela ngokuziphendukela kwemvelo okungenakuhlakanipha. Ingabe kuzwakala kunengqondo kuwe lokho? Uma umklamo okopelwe komunye udinga umklami ohlakaniphile, kuthiwani-ke ngomklamo wokuqala? Ubani ngempela okufanele athole udumo olukhulu, ingcweti noma umfundi okopela imiklamo yengcweti?

Isiphetho Esinengqondo

Ngemva kokubukeza ubufakazi bokuthi ukhona umuntu owaklama indalo, abantu abaningi bavumelana namazwi omlobi weBhayibheli uPawulu, owathi: “Izimfanelo [zikaNkulunkulu] ezingabonakali zibonakala ngokucacile kusukela ekudalweni kwezwe kuye phambili, ngoba ziqondakala ngezinto ezenziwe, ngisho namandla akhe angunaphakade nobuNkulunkulu bakhe.”—Roma 1:19, 20.