Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

 A4

Igama LikaNkulunkulu EmiBhalweni YesiHebheru

Igama likaNkulunkulu ngezinhlamvu zesiHebheru sasendulo esasisetshenziswa ngaphambi kokudingiselwa eBhabhiloni

Igama likaNkulunkulu ngezinhlamvu zesiHebheru esasisetshenziswa ngemva kokudingiselwa eBhabhiloni

Igama likaNkulunkulu elimelelwa ongwaqa abane besiHebheru יהוה, livela izikhathi ezicishe zibe ngu-7 000 emiBhalweni YesiHebheru. Le nguqulo ihumusha lezi zinhlamvu ezine, ezaziwa ngokuthi iTetragrammaton ngokuthi “Jehova.” Leli gama, yilona elivela kaningi kunanoma yiliphi elinye igama eBhayibhelini. Nakuba abalobi abaphefumulelwe bebiza uNkulunkulu ngeziqu eziningi nangamagama amchazayo anjengalawa, “Mninimandla Onke,” “oPhezukonke” nelithi “Nkosi,” iTetragrammaton iwukuphela kwegama lakhe langempela abalisebenzisayo lapho bekhuluma ngoNkulunkulu.

NguJehova uNkulunkulu ngokwakhe owaqondisa abalobi beBhayibheli ukuba basebenzise igama lakhe. Ngokwesibonelo, waphefumulela umprofethi uJoweli ukuba abhale: “Wonke umuntu obiza igama likaJehova uyosindiswa.” (Joweli 2:32) UNkulunkulu waphefumulela umhubi ukuba abhale: “Abantu mabazi ukuthi wena, ogama lakho linguJehova, wena wedwa ungoPhezukonke emhlabeni wonke.” (IHubo 83:18) Eqinisweni, igama likaNkulunkulu livela izikhathi ezingaba ngu-700 encwadini yamaHubo nje kuphela—incwadi yezinkondlo ezaziyohaywa futhi zifundwe abantu bakaNkulunkulu. Pho-ke, kungani igama likaNkulunkulu lingekho ezinguqulweni zeBhayibheli eziningi? Kungani le nguqulo isebenzisa igama elithi “Jehova”? Igama likaNkulunkulu elithi Jehova, lisho ukuthini?

Isiqeshana sencwadi yamaHubo esisemQulwini WasoLwandle Olufile owabhalwa engxenyeni yokuqala yekhulu lokuqala C.E. Lesi siqeshana sibhalwe ngezinhlamvu zesiHebheru esasivame ukusetshenziswa ngemva kokudingiselwa eBhabhiloni, kodwa iTetragrammaton ivela ngokuphindaphindiwe ngendlela ephawulekayo ibhalwe ngezinhlamvu zolimi lwesiHebheru sasendulo

Kungani leli gama lingekho ezinguqulweni eziningi zeBhayibheli? Izizathu ziyehlukahluka. Abanye banomuzwa wokuthi uNkulunkulu uMninimandla Onke akudingeki abe negama elikhethekile elimhlukanisayo. Abanye kubonakala  sengathi bathonywe isiko lamaJuda lokugwema ukulisebenzisa leli gama, mhlawumbe ngenxa yokwesaba ukulidelela. Nokho, abanye bakholelwa ukuthi njengoba kungekho ongaqiniseka ngokuthi liphinyiselwa kanjani ngempela, kungcono ukusebenzisa isiqu, esinjengokuthi “Nkosi” noma “Nkulunkulu.” Nokho, lezi akuzona izizathu ezizwakalayo ngenxa yamaqiniso alandelayo:

  • Labo abaphikayo ukuthi uNkulunkulu uMninimandla Onke kudingeka abe negama elikhethekile elimhlukanisayo, bashalazelela ubufakazi bokuthi amakhophi okuqala eZwi lakhe, kuhlanganise nalawo agcinwa kusukela ngesikhathi esingaphambi kwesikaKristu, analo igama likaNkulunkulu. Njengoba kubonisiwe ngenhla, uNkulunkulu waqondisa ukuba igama lakhe livele izikhathi ezingaba ngu-7 000 eZwini lakhe. Ngokusobala, ufuna silazi igama lakhe futhi silisebenzise.

  • Abahumushi abasusa leli gama ngenxa yokuhlonipha isiko lamaJuda abaliqapheli iqiniso eliyinhloko. Nakuba abanye ababhali abangamaJuda babenqaba ukuphimisela leli gama, abazange balikhiphe emaBhayibhelini abo. Imiqulu yasendulo eyatholakala eQumran, eduze noLwandle Olufile, inegama likaNkulunkulu ezindaweni eziningi. Abanye abahumushi beBhayibheli babonisa ukuthi igama likaNkulunkulu lalikhona emibhalweni yokuqala ngokufaka isiqu esithi “NKOSI” ngosonhlamvukazi esikhundleni salo. Kodwa umbuzo ulokhu uwukuthi, Kungani laba bahumushi bazizwa bekhululekile ukufaka elinye igama esikhundleni segama likaNkulunkulu noma ukulikhipha ngokuphelele eBhayibhelini nakuba bevuma ukuthi livela izikhathi eziyizinkulungwane emibhalweni yeBhayibheli? Ubani owabanika imvume yokwenza lezi zinguquko? Yibo abaziyo.

  • Labo abathi igama likaNkulunkulu akufanele lisetshenziswe ngenxa yokuthi akwaziwa ngokuqondile ukuthi liphinyiselwa kanjani, balisebenzisa ngokukhululekile igama elithi Jesu. Nokho, abafundi bakaJesu bangekhulu lokuqala babeliphimisela ngendlela ehluke kakhulu kuleyo amaKristu amaningi namuhla aliphimisela ngayo. KumaKristu angamaJuda, igama elithi Jesu cishe laliphinyiselwa ngokuthi Ye·shuʹa‛. Isiqu esithi “Kristu” sona sasiphinyiselwa ngokuthi Ma·shiʹach, noma “Mesiya.” AmaKristu ayekhuluma isiGreki ayembiza ngokuthi I·e·sousʹ Khri·stosʹ, kanti amaKristu ayekhuluma isiLatini ayethi u-Ieʹsus Chriʹstus. UNkulunkulu waphefumulela ukuba igama lakhe libhalwe ngolimi lwesiGreki eBhayibhelini,  okubonisa ukuthi amaKristu ekhulu lokuqala alandela indlela enengqondo yokusebenzisa igama elalivamile olimini lwawo. Ngendlela efanayo, iKomiti YeBhayibheli LeNguqulo Yezwe Elisha inomuzwa wokuthi kuyafaneleka ukusebenzisa igama elithi “Jehova,” nakuba leyo ndlela ingefani ncamashi nendlela igama likaNkulunkulu elaliphinyiselwa ngayo ngesiHebheru sasendulo.

Kungani INguqulo Yezwe Elisha isebenzisa igama elithi “Jehova”? NgesiZulu, izinhlamvu ezine zeTetragrammaton (יהוה) zimelelwa ongwaqa abathi YHWH. ITetragrammaton ayinabo onkamisa, njengoba wonke amagama esiHebheru sasendulo ayengenabo. Ngesikhathi isiHebheru sasendulo sisasetshenziswa njalo, abafundi babevele bazifakele kalula onkamisa abafanele.

Ngemva kweminyaka ecishe ibe yinkulungwane imiBhalo YesiHebheru iqediwe, izazi ezingamaJuda zasungula indlela yezimpawu zokuphimisela, eyayiyobonisa ukuthi yibaphi onkamisa okufanele basetshenziswe lapho kufundwa isiHebheru. Nokho, ngaleso sikhathi, amaJuda amaningi ayenenkolelo-ze yokuthi kubi ukuphimisela igama likaNkulunkulu, ngakho asebenzisa ezinye iziqu esikhundleni salo. Ngakho, kubonakala sengathi lapho ekopisha iTetragrammaton, ahlanganisa onkamisa beziqu ezisetshenziswa esikhundleni segama likaNkulunkulu kanye nongwaqa abane abamelela igama likaNkulunkulu. Ngenxa yalokho, imibhalo yesandla enalezo zimpawu zonkamisa ayisizi ekunqumeni ukuthi igama likaNkulunkulu lalibizwa kanjani ngesiHebheru. Abanye banomuzwa wokuthi laliphinyiselwa ngokuthi “Yahweh,” kuyilapho abanye besikisela ezinye izindlela. UmQulu WasoLwandle Olufile onesiqeshana sikaLevitikusi ngesiGreki  uhumusha igama likaNkulunkulu ngokwezwi nezwi ngokuthi Iao. Ngaphandle kwaleyo ndlela, abalobi bokuqala besiGreki babuye basikisele ukuthi liphinyiselwa ngokuthi Iae, I·a·beʹ, nangokuthi I·a·ou·eʹ. Noma kunjalo, asikho isizathu sokugomela ngendlela ethile yokuliphimisela. Kalula nje, asazi ukuthi izinceku zikaNkulunkulu zasendulo zaziliphimisela kanjani leli gama ngesiHebheru. (Genesise 13:4; Eksodusi 3:15) Esikwaziyo ukuthi uNkulunkulu wasebenzisa igama lakhe ngokuphindaphindiwe lapho ekhuluma nabantu bakhe, ukuthi babembiza ngalelo gama nokuthi babelisebenzisa ngokukhululekile lapho bekhuluma nabanye.—Eksodusi 6:2; 1 AmaKhosi 8:23; IHubo 99:9.

Igama likaNkulunkulu kuGenesise 15:2 enguqulweni kaWilliam Tyndale yePentateuch, yango-1530

Pho-ke, kungani le nguqulo isebenzisa igama elithi “Jehova”? Kungenxa yokuthi iyona ndlela igama likaNkulunkulu ebelilokhu libhalwa ngayo olimini lwesiZulu.

ITetragrammaton, YHWH: “Ubangela Ukuba Kube Khona”

Isenzo esithi HWH: “ukuba kube khona”

Lisho ukuthini igama elithi Jehova? NgesiHebheru, igama elithi Jehova livela esenzweni esisho ukuthi “ukuba kube khona,” futhi izazi zeBhayibheli eziningi zinomuzwa wokuthi leli gama liyimpambosi yokwenzisa yaleso senzo sesiHebheru. Ngakho, iKomiti YeBhayibheli LeNguqulo Yezwe Elisha iqonda igama likaNkulunkulu ngokuthi “Ubangela Ukuba Kube Khona.” Izazi zeBhayibheli zinemibono ehlukene, ngakho ngeke sagomela ngale ncazelo. Noma kunjalo, le ncazelo iyifanela kahle indima kaJehova njengoMdali wazo zonke izinto noMgcwalisi wenjongo yakhe. Akazange nje abangele ukuba indalo ebonakalayo nezidalwa ezihlakaniphile kube khona, kodwa njengoba izinto zembuleka, uyaqhubeka ebangela ukuba intando yakhe igcwaliseke.

Ngakho-ke, incazelo yegama elithi Jehova ayisho nje kuphela isenzo esihlobana nalo esitholakala ku-Eksodusi 3:14, othi: “Ngiyoba Yilokho Engikhetha Ukuba Yikho” noma “Ngiyoba Yilokho Engiyoba Yikho.” Uma kuhlolisiswa, lawo mazwi awalichazi ngokuphelele igama likaNkulunkulu. Kunalokho, embula okuthile ngobuntu bukaNkulunkulu, abonisa ukuthi uba yilokho okudingekayo esimweni ngasinye ukuze agcwalise injongo yakhe. Ngakho, nakuba igama likaJehova lingase lihlanganise lo mqondo, alisho nje kuphela lokho yena ngokwakhe akhetha ukuba yikho. Liphinde lihlanganise lokho yena abangela ukuba kwenzeke ngokuphathelene nendalo yakhe nokugcwaliseka kwenjongo yakhe.