Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

 A3

Indlela IBhayibheli Elafika Ngayo Kithi

UMlobi noMsunguli weBhayibheli uphinde abe uMlondolozi walo. NguYe owenza ukuba kulotshwe la mazwi:

“Izwi likaNkulunkulu wethu lihlala kuze kube phakade.”​—Isaya 40:8.

La mazwi ayiqiniso, nakuba ingasekho namuhla imibhalo yesandla yokuqala yeBhayibheli yemiBhalo YesiHebheru neYesi-Aramu * noma yemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki. Pho singaqiniseka kanjani ukuthi lokho okubhalwe eBhayibhelini esinalo namuhla yikho ngempela okushiwo yimibhalo yokuqala ephefumulelwe?

ABAKOPISHI BALONDOLOZA IZWI LIKANKULUNKULU

Ngokuqondene nemiBhalo YesiHebheru, ingxenye yempendulo itholakala esikweni lasendulo elasungulwa nguNkulunkulu owathi imibhalo kufanele ikopishwe. * Ngokwesibonelo, uJehova wayala amakhosi akwa-Israyeli ukuba azikopishele uMthetho. (Duteronomi 17:18) Ngaphezu kwalokho, uNkulunkulu wanikeza amaLevi umsebenzi wokulondoloza uMthetho nokufundisa abantu ngawo. (Duteronomi 31:26; Nehemiya 8:7) Ngemva kokudingiselwa kwamaJuda eBhabhiloni, kwaba khona iqembu labakopishi noma lababhali (ama­Sopher). (Ezra 7:6, umbhalo waphansi) Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, labo babhali benza amakhophi amaningi ezincwadi ezingu-39 zemiBhalo YesiHebheru.

Phakathi namakhulu eminyaka, ababhali bazikopisha ngokucophelela lezi zincwadi. NgeNkathi Ephakathi, iqembu lababhali abangamaJuda elalaziwa ngokuthi amaMasorete laqhubeka nalo msebenzi. Umbhalo wesandla wamaMasorete ophelele omdala kakhulu yi-Leningrad Codex, eyakopishwa ngawo-1008/1009 C.E. Nokho, phakathi  neminyaka yawo-1900, kwatholakala imibhalo yesandla yeBhayibheli engu-220 noma izinsalela zayo emiQulwini YasoLwandle Olufile. Leyo mibhalo yesandla yeBhayibheli yayimidala ngeminyaka engaphezu kweyinkulungwane kune-Leningrad Codex. Ukuqhathanisa imiQulu YasoLwandle Olufile ne-Leningrad Codex kuqinisekisa leli phuzu elisemqoka: Nakuba imiQulu YasoLwandle Olufile ihlukile endleleni ebhalwe ngayo, lokho kwehluka akuwuphazamisi umyalezo ngokwawo.

Kuthiwani-ke ngezincwadi ezingu-27 zemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki? Ekuqaleni lezo zincwadi zabhalwa abanye babaphostoli bakaJesu Kristu kanye nabanye abafundi bokuqala abambalwa. Elandela isiko lababhali abangamaJuda, amaKristu okuqala azikopisha lezo zincwadi. (Kolose 4:16) Naphezu kwemizamo yoMbusi WaseRoma uDiocletian kanye nabanye yokucekela phansi zonke izincwadi zamaKristu okuqala, izinkulungwane zezinsalela nemibhalo yesandla emidala kuye kwalondolozwa kwaze kwaba namuhla.

Imibhalo yamaKristu yahunyushelwa nakwezinye izilimi. Izinguqulo zokuqala zeBhayibheli zihlanganisa ezezilimi zakudala ezinjengesi-Armenia, isiCopt, isi-Ethiopia, isiGeorgia, isiLatini nesiSiriya.

UKUTHOLA IMIBHALO YESIHEBHERU NEYESIGREKI UKUZE IHUNYUSHWE

Akuwona wonke amakhophi emibhalo yesandla yeBhayibheli akudala asebenzise amagama afanayo. Pho singazi kanjani ukuthi umbhalo wokuqala wawuthini?

Lokhu singakufanisa nothisha ocela abafundi abangu-100 ukuba bakopishe isahluko esisodwa sencwadi. Ngisho noma leso sahluko sokuqala besingalahleka kamuva, ukuqhathaniswa kwala makhophi angu-100 bekuyoveza ukuthi umbhalo wokuqala wawuthini. Nakuba umfundi ngamunye engalenza iphutha, mancane amathuba okuthi bonke abafundi benze amaphutha afana ncamashi. Ngokufanayo, lapho izazi ziqhathanisa izinkulungwane zezinsalela namakhophi akudala ezincwadi zeBhayibheli ezinawo, zingakwazi ukulibona iphutha lomkopishi futhi zithole ukuthi umbhalo wokuqala wawuthini.

“Kungashiwo ngokuqiniseka ukuthi awukho omunye umsebenzi obhaliwe wasendulo odluliselwe ngokunembe kanje”

Singaqiniseka kangakanani ukuthi imiqondo esemibhalweni yeBhayibheli yokuqala idluliselwe ngokunembile kithi? Siphawula ngalokho okusemiBhalweni YesiHebheru, isazi uWilliam H. Green sathi: “Kungashiwo ngokuqiniseka ukuthi awukho omunye umsebenzi obhaliwe wasendulo odluliselwe ngokunembe kanje.” Ngokuqondene nemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki, noma lokho okubizwa ngokuthi iTestamente Elisha, isazi seBhayibheli uF. F. Bruce sabhala:  “Ubufakazi bemibhalo yethu yeTestamente Elisha bukhulu kakhulu kunobufakazi bemibhalo eminingi yababhali bakudala, labo ukunemba kwezinto abazibhala okungangatshazwa nhlobo.” Saphinde sathi: “Ukube iTestamente Elisha beliyiqoqo lemibhalo yabantu nje evamile, ukunemba kwalo bekungeke nhlobo kungatshazwe.”

Isahluko 40 sencwadi ka-Isaya esithathwe emiQulwini YasoLwandle Olufile (okulinganiselwa ukuthi eyango-125 kuya ku-100 B.C.E.)

Lapho siqhathaniswa nemibhalo yesandla yesiHebheru cishe yeminyaka eyinkulungwane kamuva, mncane kakhulu umahluko owatholakala, ikakhulukazi amaphutha endleleni okubhalwe ngayo amagama

Isahluko 40 sencwadi ka-Isaya esithathwe kuyi-Aleppo Codex ewumbhalo wesandla wesiHebheru obalulekile wamaMasorete cishe wango-930 C.E.

Umbhalo WesiHebheru: INququlo YeZwe Elisha YemiBhalo YesiHebheru (1953-1960) yesiNgisi, yayisekelwe kuyi-Biblia Hebraica, kaRudolf Kittel. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, izinhlelo ezibukeziwe zemibhalo yesiHebheru, okuwukuthi, i-Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia ne-Biblia Hebraica Quinta, ziye zafaka ucwaningo lwamuva olusekelwe emiQulwini YasoLwandle Olufile nakweminye imibhalo yesandla yasendulo. Le misebenzi yezazi isebenzise i-Leningrad Codex endabeni kanye nemibhalo yaphansi enendlela yokubeka ehlukile ethathwe kweminye imithombo, ehlanganisa i-Samaritan Pentateuch, imiQulu YasoLwandle Olufile, i-Septuagint yesiGreki, i-Targums yesi-Aramu, i-Vulgate yesiLatini kanye ne-Peshitta yesiSiriya. Kokubili ­i-Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia ne-Biblia Hebraica Quinta kwahlolwa lapho kwenziwa le Nguqulo Yezwe Elisha esinayo manje.

Umbhalo WesiGreki: Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yawo-1800, izazi uB. F. Westcott noF.J.A. Hort zaqhathanisa imibhalo yeBhayibheli yesandla nezinsalela okukhona lapho zenza umbhalo wesiGreki oyinhloko ezazicabanga ukuthi ukuveza kahle okusemibhalweni yokuqala. Maphakathi nawo-1900, iKomiti YeBhayibheli LeNguqulo Yezwe Elisha yasebenzisa lowo mbhalo oyinhloko lapho ihumusha inguqulo yayo. Kwasetshenziswa namanye amaphaphirasi akudala, okucatshangwa ukuthi awangekhulu lesibili nelesithathu C.E. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, sekutholakale amanye amaphaphirasi amaningi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imibhalo eyinhloko enjengaleyo eyabhalwa uNestle no-Aland kanye ne-United Bible Societies inocwaningo lwezazi lwamuva. Okunye okutholakale kulolu cwaningo kufakiwe kule nguqulo.

Uma kubhekwa leyo mibhalo eyinhloko, kuba sobala ukuthi amanye amavesi atholakala ezinguqulweni ezindala zemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki, njengenguqulo i-King James, empeleni ayenezelwe abakopishi bakamuva futhi ayengakaze abe yingxenye yemiBhalo ephefumulelwe. Nokho, ngenxa yokuthi ukuhlukaniswa kwamavesi okwamukelwayo ezinguqulweni zeBhayibheli kwase kukhona ngawo-1500, ukukhishwa kwala mavesi kwenza ezinye izinombolo zamavesi zingabi nalutho emaBhayibhelini amaningi. Lawo mavesi uMathewu 17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Marku 7:16; 9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28; Luka 17:36; 23:17; Johane 5:4; IzEnzo 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; neyabaseRoma 16:24. Kule nguqulo ebukeziwe, lawo mavesi angenalutho aphawulwe ngokufakwa kombhalo waphansi lapho ekhishwe khona.

Ngokuphathelene nesiphetho eside sikaMarku 16 (amavesi 9-​20), isiphetho esifushane sikaMarku 16 kanye namazwi atholakala  kuJohane 7:53–8:11, kusobala ukuthi alikho nelilodwa kula mavesi elalikhona emibhalweni yesandla yokuqala. Ngakho-ke, lawo mavesi angelona iqiniso awafakwanga kule nguqulo. *

Ezinye izindlela okubekwe ngazo ziye zalungiswa ukuze kufakwe lokho okwamukelwa yizazi njengokuyiveza ngokunembe kakhudlwana incazelo yemibhalo yokuqala. Ngokwesibonelo, ngokweminye imibhalo yesandla uMathewu 7:13 uthi: “Ngenani ngesango elincane, ngoba likhulu isango futhi uvulekile umgwaqo oholela ekubhujisweni.” EmaBhayibhelini adlule e-Nguqulo Yezwe Elisha, igama elithi “isango” lalingafakwanga evesini. Nokho, ubufakazi bocwaningo olunzulu lwemibhalo yesandla lwaholela esiphethweni sokuthi igama elithi “isango” lalikhona embhalweni wokuqala. Ngakho lifakiwe kule nguqulo. Ziningi ezinye izinto ezilungisiwe ezifana nalokhu. Nokho, akulona ushintsho olukhulu olwenziwe futhi akukho lutho kulokhu kulungisa okushintsha umyalezo weZwi likaNkulunkulu oyisisekelo.

Umbhalo wesandla wephaphirasi weyesi-2 Korinte 4:13–5:4 cishe wango-200 C.E.

^ par. 5 Ibizwa ngokuthi yimiBhalo YesiHebheru kusukela lapha kuya phambili.

^ par. 7 Eminye imininingwane yokuthi kungani la mavesi ebhekwa njengangelona iqiniso ingatholakala emibhalweni yaphansi ye-New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures​—With References yesiNgisi, eyanyatheliswa ngo-1984.

^ par. 18 Esinye isizathu esenza kwadingeka ukuba kukopishwe imibhalo yesandla ukuthi eyokuqala yayibhalwe ezintweni ezigugayo.