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Igama LikaNkulunkulu EmiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki

Izazi zeBhayibheli ziyavuma ukuthi igama likaNkulunkulu, elimelelwa yiTetragrammaton (יהוה), livela izikhathi ezingaba ngu-7 000 emiBhalweni yokuqala YesiHebheru. Nokho, abaningi banomuzwa wokuthi lalingaveli emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki yokuqala. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, muva nje amaBhayibheli esiNgisi awanalo igama elithi Jehova ezinguqulweni ezibizwa ngokuthi iTestamente Elisha. Ngisho nalapho behumusha izingcaphuno ezithathwe emiBhalweni YesiHebheru lapho kuvela khona iTetragrammaton, abahumushi abaningi basebenzisa isiqu esithi “Nkosi” esikhundleni segama likaNkulunkulu.

INguqulo Yezwe Elisha YemiBhalo Engcwele ayiyisebenzisi le ndlela evamile. Igama elithi Jehova livela izikhathi ezingu-237 emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki. Lapho benquma ukwenza lokhu, abahumushi bayo bacabangela izinto ezimbili ezibalulekile: (1) Imibhalo yesandla yesiGreki esinayo namuhla akuyona eyokuqala ngqa. Ezinkulungwaneni zamakhophi emibhalo ekhona namuhla, eziningi kuzo zenziwa sekudlule okungenani iminyaka engaba ngu-200 kwabhalwa imibhalo yokuqala ngqa. (2) Ngaleso sikhathi, labo ababekopisha imibhalo yesandla kungenzeka ukuthi esikhundleni seTetragrammaton bafaka elithi Kyʹri·os, igama lesiGreki elisho ukuthi “Nkosi,” noma bakopisha imibhalo yesandla eyayisivele inalolu shintsho.

IKomiti YeBhayibheli LeNguqulo Yezwe Elisha yathola ukuthi kunobufakazi obuqand’ ikhanda bokuthi iTetragrammaton yayivela emibhalweni yesandla yokuqala yesiGreki. Le Komiti yenza isinqumo esasisekelwe ebufakazini obulandelayo:

  • Amakhophi emiBhalo YesiHebheru ayesetshenziswa ezinsukwini zikaJesu nabaphostoli bakhe ayenayo iTetragrammaton. Esikhathini esedlule, bambalwa ababekuphikisa lokho. Manje njengoba sekutholakale amakhophi emiBhalo YesiHebheru angekhulu lokuqala eduze neQumran, sekunobufakazi obuqand’ ikhanda bokuthi lokhu kuyiqiniso.

  • Ezinsukwini zikaJesu nabaphostoli bakhe, iTetragrammaton yayiphinde ivele ezinguqulweni zesiGreki zemiBhalo YesiHebheru. Kwaphela amakhulu eminyaka izazi zicabanga ukuthi iTetragrammaton yayingekho emibhalweni yesandla yenguqulo ye-Septuagint yesiGreki yemiBhalo YesiHebheru. Kwase kuthi maphakathi neminyaka yawo-1900, zathola iziqeshana ezithile ezindala kakhulu ze-Septuagint yesiGreki yangosuku lukaJesu. Lezo ziqeshana  zinegama likaNkulunkulu elibhalwe ngezinhlamvu zesiHebheru. Ngakho, osukwini lukaJesu, amakhophi emiBhalo yesiGreki ayenalo igama likaNkulunkulu. Noma kunjalo, ngekhulu lesine C.E., imibhalo yesandla eyayaziwa kakhulu ye-Septuagint yesiGreki, njenge-Codex Vaticanus ne-Codex Sinaiticus, yayingenalo igama likaNkulunkulu ukusuka encwadini kaGenesise kuya kwekaMalaki (lapho elalivela khona emibhalweni yesandla yangaphambili). Ngakho, akumangazi ukuthi emibhalweni eyagcinwa kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, alikho igama likaNkulunkulu kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi iTestamente Elisha noma imiBhalo YesiGreki.

    UJesu wakubeka ngokucacile: “Ngize ngegama likaBaba.” Wagcizelela nokuthi imisebenzi yakhe wayeyenza ‘egameni likaYise’

  • ImiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki ibika ukuthi uJesu wayevame ukukhuluma ngegama likaNkulunkulu futhi walenza laziwa kwabanye. (Johane 17:6, 11, 12, 26) UJesu wakubeka kwacaca: “Ngize ngegama likaBaba.” Wabuye wagcizelela ukuthi imisebenzi yakhe wayeyenza ‘egameni likaYise.’—Johane 5:43; 10:25.

  • Njengoba imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki iyimibhalo ephefumulelwe enezela emiBhalweni YesiHebheru engcwele, ukunyamalala ngokungazelelwe kwegama likaJehova emibhalweni yesiGreki kwakuyokwenza kubonakale sengathi imiBhalo ayivumelani. Cishe maphakathi nekhulu lokuqala C.E., umfundi uJakobe wathi kubadala baseJerusalema: “USimeyoni useyilandise ngokuphelele indlela manje uNkulunkulu asenaka ngayo izizwe ukuze athathe kuzo isizwe segama lakhe.” (IzEnzo 15:14) Kwakungeke kube nengqondo ngoJakobe ukuba akhulume kanjalo uma kwakungekho muntu ekhulwini lokuqala owayazi noma owayesebenzisa igama likaNkulunkulu.

  • Igama likaNkulunkulu livela lifushanisiwe emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki. Encwadini yesAmbulo 19:1, 3, 4, 6, igama likaNkulunkulu liyingxenye yegama elithi “Haleluya.” Leli gama livela enkulumweni yesiHebheru ngokwezwi nezwi esho ukuthi “Dumisani uJah.” Igama elithi “Jah” liyisifushaniso selithi “Jehova.” Amagama amaningi asetshenziswe emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki aqanjwa esuselwa egameni likaNkulunkulu. Eqinisweni, izincwadi ziyachaza ukuthi kwalona igama likaJesu lisho ukuthi “UJehova Uyinsindiso.”

  • Izincwadi zamaJuda zokuqala zibonisa ukuthi amaKristu angamaJuda ayelisebenzisa igama likaNkulunkulu ezincwadini zawo. I-Tosefta, iqoqo elibhaliwe lemithetho yamaJuda edluliselwa ngomlomo, eyaqedwa cishe ngo-300 C.E., isho lokhu ngokuphathelene nezincwadi zamaKristu ezashiswa ngeSabatha: “Izincwadi zabaVangeli nezincwadi zama-minim [okucatshangwa ukuthi amaKristu  angamaJuda] zifakwa emlilweni. Ziyayekwa zishe, zona kanye negama likaNkulunkulu elikuzo.” Yona le Tosefta icaphuna uRabi Yosé waseGalile, owaphila ekuqaleni kwekhulu lesibili C.E., ethi ngezinye izinsuku phakathi nesonto “kusikwa igama likaNkulunkulu ezincwadini [okucatshangwa ukuthi kwakuyizincwadi zobuKristu] bese libekwa, ngemva kwalokho kushiswe konke okusele.”

  • Ezinye izazi zeBhayibheli ziyavuma ukuthi cishe igama likaNkulunkulu lalivela ezingcaphunweni zemiBhalo YesiHebheru ezitholakala emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki. Ngaphansi kwesihloko ethi “Tetragrammaton in the New Testament,” i-Anchor Bible  Dictionary ithi: “Bukhona ubufakazi obuthile bokuthi lapho iTestamente Elisha libhalwa okokuqala, iTetragrammaton, igama likaNkulunkulu, elithi Yahweh, yayivela kwezinye noma kuzo zonke izingcaphuno ezithathwe eTestamenteni Elidala.” Isazi uGeorge Howard sithi: “Njengoba iTetragram yayisabhaliwe emakhophini eBhayibheli lesiGreki [i-Septuagint] ayeyingxenye yemiBhalo eyayisetshenziswa esontweni lobuKristu lokuqala, kunengqondo ukukholelwa ukuthi lapho ababhali beTestamente Elisha becaphuna imiBhalo babeyigcina iTetragram emibhalweni yeBhayibheli.”

  •   Abahumushi beBhayibheli abahlonishwayo baye balisebenzisa igama likaNkulunkulu emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki. Abanye kulaba bahumushi bakwenza lokhu kusasele isikhathi eside kwenziwe INguqulo Yezwe Elisha. Nanka amagama abahumushi nezinguqulo zabo: I-Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, eyahunyushwa uHerman Heinfetter (1863); i-Emphatic Diaglott, eyahunyushwa uBenjamin Wilson (1864); i-Epistles of Paul in Modern English, eyahunyushwa uGeorge Barker Stevens (1898); i-St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, eyahunyushwa uW. G. Rutherford (1900) ne-New Testament Letters, eyahunyushwa uJ.W.C. Wand, umBhishobhi waseLondon (1946). Ngaphezu kwalokho, umhumushi uPablo Besson wasebenzisa igama elithi “Jehova” kuLuka 2:15 nakuJude 14 enguqulweni yeSpanishi ekuqaleni kweminyaka yawo-1900, futhi imibhalo yaphansi ecishe ibe yikhulu enguqulweni yakhe isikisela ukuthi igama likaNkulunkulu yilona okufanele lisetshenziswe. Esikhathini eside ngaphambi kwalezo zinguqulo, inguqulo yesiHebheru yemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki yangeminyaka yawo-1500 kuqhubeke, yasebenzisa iTetragrammaton emavesini amaningi. Olimini lwesiJalimane kuphela, kunezinguqulo ezingu-11 ezisebenzisa igama elithi “Jehova” (noma indlela yesiHebheru ethi “Yahweh”) emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki, kuyilapho abahumushi  abane befaka lelo gama kubakaki ngemva kwegama elithi “Nkosi.” Zingaphezu kuka-70 izinguqulo zesiJalimane ezisebenzisa igama likaNkulunkulu emibhalweni yaphansi noma ekukhulunyelweni kwemiBhalo.

    Igama likaNkulunkulu encwadini yezEnzo 2:​34 kuyi-Emphatic Diaglott, kaBenjamin Wilson (1864)

  • Izinguqulo zeBhayibheli ngezilimi ezingaphezu kwekhulu zinegama likaNkulunkulu emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki. Izilimi eziningi zase-Afrika, ezomdabu zaseMelika, ezase-Asia, ezaseYurophu nezasesiqhingini sasePacific zilisebenzisa ngokukhululeka igama likaNkulunkulu. (Bheka uhlu  olusekhasini 1998 no-1999.) Abahumushi balezi zinguqulo banquma ukusebenzisa igama likaNkulunkulu ngenxa yezizathu ezifana nalezi ezichazwe ngenhla. Muva nje kuye kwavela ezinye zalezi zinguqulo zemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki njenge-Rotuman Bible (1999) esebenzisa igama elithi “Jihova” izikhathi ezingu-51 emavesini angu-48 kanye neyesiBatak (isiToba) (1989) sase-Indonesia esebenzisa igama elithi “Jahowa” izikhathi ezingu-110.

    Igama likaNkulunkulu kuMarku 12:29, 30 enguqulweni yesiHawaii

Ngokungangabazeki, kunesizathu esizwakalayo sokubuyisela igama likaNkulunkulu, elithi Jehova, emiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki. Yilokho kanye okwenziwe abahumushi be-Nguqulo Yezwe Elisha. Balihlonipha ngokujulile igama likaNkulunkulu futhi abanakulokotha basuse noma yini eyayikhona emibhalweni yokuqala.—IsAmbulo 22:18, 19.