Yiya kwinkcazelo

Yiya kwelilandelayo

Yiya kwiziqulatho

AmaNgqina KaYehova

IsiXhosa

Ngaba Izinto Eziphilayo Zadalwa?

Ngubani Owayiyila Kuqala?

Ngubani Owayiyila Kuqala?

Kutshanje, singatsho ukuba izazinzulu neenjineli ziye zavuma ukuba ziyalelwe zizityalo nezilwanyana. (Yobhi 12:7, 8) Zifunda ngezidalwa ezahlukahlukeneyo zize zizame ukuzixelisa—isifundo ekuthiwa yibiomimetics—ukuze ziyile izinto ezintsha nokuphucula ezo zikhoyo. Njengokuba ukhangela kule mizekelo ilandelayo, zibuze, ‘Ngubani ofanele azukiswe ngokuyila ezi zinto?’

 Ukufunda Kumaphiko Omnenga

Ziziphi izinto ezinokufundwa ngabenzi beenqwelo-moya kumnenga ihumpback? Kuyabonakala ukuba zininzi gqitha. Xa ukhulile lo mnenga uba nobunzima obuziitoni ezingama-30—ubunzima belori ethe ntli ngumthwalo—yaye unomzimba ombuku-mbuku namaphiko amakhulu. Esi silo siziimitha ezili-12 ubude sigqadaza nje lula ngaphantsi kwamanzi.

Enye into emangalisa abaphandi yindlela ojika kufuphi ngokukhawuleza ngayo lo mnenga nakuba uyimbuku-mbuku. Bafumanise ukuba uncedwa yindlela amile ngayo amaphiko awo. Njengamaphiko enqwelo-moya, kwincam yawo la maphiko arhabaxa, kodwa wona aqoqiwe yaye kukho umgca onamaqhuqhuva abizwa ngokuba ziitubercles.

Njengokuba uhamba ngokukhawuleza emanzini, ezi tubercles ziyawuphakamisa udade nje lula. Kwenzeka njani oku? Ulindixesha iNatural History uthi ezi tubercles zenza amanzi adlule ngokukhawuleza phezu kwamaphiko, naxa umnenga ukwindawo enyukayo.10

Ngubani ongumyili wendalo?

Yintoni enokwenziwa ngolu lwazi lufunyenweyo? Ukuba amaphiko enqwelo-moya ebesekelwe kolu lwazi beziya kuba mbalwa izixhobo ezixokonyezelelwa kuwo ukuze iphaphazele. Oku bekuya kwenza inqwelo-moya ikhuseleke ngakumbi kuze kube lula nokuyilungisa. Ingcali ngokusebenza komzimba uJohn Long ikholelwa ukuba kungekudala “kuza kubakho iinqwelo-moya ezinamaphiko afana nawalo mnenga.”11

Ukulinganisa Amaphiko Engabangaba

Yaziwa nanguthathatha eyokuba amaphiko eenqwelo-moya asekelwe kwawentaka. Noko ke, kutshanje iinjineli ziye zanochatha kulo mba wokulinganisa indalo. Iphephancwadi iNew Scientist lithi: “Abaphandi beYunivesithi yaseFlorida baye benza inqwelo-moya encinane esebenza ngeremote-control  ekwaziyo ukundanda, ihle ize iphinde inyuke njengengabangaba.”12

Ngenxa yamaphiko alo abhetyebhetye, ingabangaba liyakwazi ukunyuka lize lenze uqulukubhode emoyeni. Lo lindixesha uthi, ilinganisa amaphiko engabangaba, “le nqwelo-moya iziisentimitha ezingama-60 ubukhulu inomatshini omncinane olawula amaphiko ayo.” La maphiko enziwe ngobuchule anceda le nqwelo-moya ikwazi ukundanda ize ihle phakathi kwezakhiwo ezide. Wambi amalungu omkhosi azimisele ukwenza inqwelo-moya esebenza ngolo hlobo ukuze akwazi ukukhangela izixhobo zamachiza kwizixeko ezikhulu.

Ukukopa Kumlenze Wengabangaba

Ingabangaba liyakwazi ukuma emkhenkceni kodwa lingaqotholi. Yintoni elinceda lihlale lifudumele? Imfihlelo yindlela emangalisayo eyilwe ngayo imilenze yezilwanyana ezininzi ezihlala kwiindawo ezinomkhenkce.

Umzimba uhlala ufudumele. Ukubanda kuphelela emanqineni

Isebenza njani imilenze yezi zilwanyana? Ukuze uyiqonde, cinga ngemibhobho emibini yamanzi ethene nca. Komnye kuhamba amanzi ashushu, komnye abandayo. Ukuba amanzi ayehla kule mibhobho yomibini, phantse isiqingatha sobushushu bomnye siya kufudumeza elo cala libandayo. Kodwa, ukuba la manzi ayaphambana, la abandayo aphantse abuthabathe bonke ubushushu bomnye umbhobho.

Xa ingabangaba limi emkhenkceni, imilenze yalo iyakwazi ukufudumeza elo gazi libuya kumanqina abandayo. Oku kwenza umzimba walo uhlale ufudumele. UArthur P. Fraas, injineli kwezophapho, uchaza obu buchule bale ntaka ngokuthi “buyenye  yeenkqubo zokufudumeza ezibalaseleyo ehlabathini.”13 Ngenxa yobukrelekrele eyenziwe ngabo le nkqubo kuye kwanyanzeleka ukuba abantu bakope kuyo.

Ngubani Ofanele Azukiswe?

Ingcamango ngemoto enokufana neboxfish

Sithethanje, iNational Aeronautics and Space Administration imaxhaphetshu isenza irobhoti enemilenze emininzi ehamba njengonomadudwane, ngoxa zona iinjineli zaseFinland ziye zenza iteletele enemilenze emithandathu enokunyuka phezu kwayo nantoni na kanye njengesinambuzane esikhulu. Abanye abaphandi baye benza ilaphu elivulekayo liphinde livaleke njengepinecone. Elo laphu livumelana nobushushu bomzimba. Abanye abenzi beemoto bazama ukwenza imoto efana nentlanzi ekuthiwa yiboxfish. Kwelinye icala kukho abazama ukwenza izinto zokudambisa ukubetheka behlolisisa indlela elenziwe ngayo iqokobhe lembaza ukuze benze iimpahla ezilula nezomeleleyo zokuzikhusela.

Iidolfini zizodlula le izixhobo ezenziwa ngabantu zokukhangela izinto eziphantsi kwamanzi ngezandi zamaza

Kangangendlela ezininzi ngayo izinto zendalo abazama ukuzilinganisa, abaphandi baye benza uluhlu lwezinto ezininzi eziyilwa ngokusekelwe kwindalo. IThe Economist ithi izazinzulu zinokukhangela kolu luhlu zize zifumane “isicombululo kwiingxaki ezihlangabezana nazo xa ziyila izinto.” Olu luhlu lwezinto ezisekelwe kwindalo lubizwa ngokuba “yibiological patents.” Umntu okanye inkampani eze nengcamango okanye yayila umatshini omtsha kudla ngokuthiwa yipatent holder (umyili wayo). Ithetha ngolu luhlu, iThe Economist ithi: “Xa besithi izinto eziyilwa ngokusekelwe kwindalo ‘ziibiological patents’ abaphengululi babethelela into yokuba, eneneni indalo yeyona patent holder (umyili wezo zinto).”14

Izazinzulu zikwiphulo lokufumana eyona nto ibangela ukuba iqokobhe lembaza likwazi ukudambisa ukubetheka

Indalo yazifumana phi zonke ezi ngcamango zikrelekrele kangaka? Abaphengululi abaninzi bazukisa indalo ngokuthi ezi zinto zazivelela ngamabona-ndenzile kwizigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Noko ke abanye abaphengululi abavumelani noku. Omnye unjingalwazi ngezinto eziphilayo uMichael Behe wathi kwiThe New York Times kaFebruwari 7, 2005: “Ubungqina bokuba indalo inomyili buzicacele okwekati emhlophe  ehlungwini. Xa kukho ubugqina obufana nobu akukho sizathu sakubuphikisa kuba oko bekuya kufana nokubuza ibhasi ibhaliwe.” Yintoni kanye ayitshoyo lo kaBehe? Uthi: “Xa into izicacele ukuba iyiliwe asimele sikubethe ngoyaba oko.”15

Unqinishe okanye iqungequ liyakwazi ukubambelela nakwezona ndawo zimtyibilizi ngokusebenzisa amandla emolekyuli

Injineli eye yayila iphiko lenqwelo-moya elisemagqabini imele izukiswe ngomsebenzi wayo. Kumele kube njalo nangomyili welaphu lempahla elithi ndijonge okanye imoto esemagqabini. Enyanisweni, umntu owenza into ekopa kwinto eyilwe ngomnye aze angamchazi oyena myili wayo, unokujongwa njengesaphuli-mthetho.

Khawucinge ngoku: Into eyenziwa ngabaphandi abafunde bayityekeza, kukusuka nje bakope kwizinto zendalo esele zikho ukuze bacombulule iingxaki zeenjineli. Ukanti, abanye baye bathi obo bukrelekrele yimveliso nje yezinto ezasuka zazivelela. Ngaba kuvakala kusengqiqweni oko? Ukuba into ekotshwe kwenye ifuna umyili okrelekrele, kuthekani ngaleyo yayilwa kuqala akope kuyo? Ngubani ofanele azukiswe, yinjineli eyila kuqala okanye ngumfundi okopa kwizinto zayo?

Isigqibo Esisengqiqweni

Emva kokuqwalasela ubungqina bokuba indalo inomyili, abantu abaninzi bayavumelana nala amazwi ombhali weBhayibhile uPawulos: “Iimpawu zakhe ezingabonakaliyo [uThixo] zibonwa ngokucacileyo ukususela ekudalweni kwehlabathi kuse phambili, ngenxa yokuba ziqondeka ngezinto ezenziweyo, kwanamandla angunaphakade nobuThixo bakhe.”—Roma 1:19, 20.