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IMboniselo  |  Matshi 2015

Izipho Ezifanele UKumkani

Izipho Ezifanele UKumkani

‘Abavumisi ngeenkwenkwezi abavela kwimimandla yaseMpumalanga bavula ubuncwane babo baza bampha izipho—igolide nentlaka yokuqhumisa nemore.’—Mateyu 2:1, 11.

UBUNGAMPHA isipho esinjani umntu obaluleke kakhulu? Ngamaxesha okubhalwa kweBhayibhile ezinye iziqholo zazixabiseke njengegolide—kangangokuba yayizizipho ezifanele ukumkani. * Seso sizathu kanye esabangela ukuba ezibini kwizipho abavumisi ngeenkwenkwezi ababeziphathele “ukumkani wamaYuda” ibe ziziqhumiso ezinuka kamnandi.—Mateyu 2:1, 2, 11.

Ioli yebhalsam

IBhayibhile isibalisela ukuba xa ukumkanikazi waseShebha wayetyelele uSolomon wamphathela “ikhulu elinamashumi amabini eetalente zegolide neoli yebhalsam eninzi kakhulu, namatye axabisekileyo; akuzange kuphinde kuziswe ioli yebhalsam enjengaleyo ukumkanikazi waseShebha awayika uKumkani uSolomon.” * (2 Kronike 9:9) Nabanye ookumkani babemthumelela ioli yebhalsam njengesipho sokuqinisa ubuhlobo.—2 Kronike 9:23, 24.

Yintoni eyayibangela ukuba ezi ziqholo zixabiseke yaye zidure kangaka ngamaxesha okubhalwa kweBhayibhile? Kungenxa yokuba zazisetyenziselwa izinto ezininzi ezibalulekileyo; zazisenza izinto zokuthambisa, zisetyenziswa xa kunqulwa naxa kungcwatywa. (Funda ibhokisi ethi “ Imisebenzi Yeziqholo Ezinuka Kamnandi Ngamaxesha Okubhalwa KweBhayibhile.”) Iziqholo zazingaduri nje kuba zazifunwa kakhulu, kodwa nangenxa yexabiso lokuzithutha nokuzithengisa.

UKUNQUMLA INTLANGO YASEARABHIYA

Ikasiya

Ngamaxesha okubhalwa kweBhayibhile ezinye iziqholo zazintshula ngakwiNtlambo yaseYordan, kodwa ezinye zazithengwa kwamanye amazwe. EBhayibhileni kuthethwa ngeentlobo-ntlobo zeziqholo. Ezinye zezona zazixhaphakile yayiyisafroni, ikhala, ibhalsam, isinamoni, intlaka yokuqhumisa, kunye nemore. Ngaphandle kwezi, kwakukho izinongo zokutya ezinje ngekumin, ityeleba (i-mint) kunye nedile.

Zazivela phi ezi ziqholo? Ikhala, ikasiya nesinamoni zazivela kwiindawo ezaziwa namhlanje ngokuba yiTshayina, i-Indiya, neSri Lanka. Iziqholo ezifana nemore kunye nentlaka yokuqhumisa zazifumaneka kwimithi nakumatyholo awayehluma kummandla oyintlango osuka kumzantsi weArabhiya ukuya eSomaliya eAfrika. Inadusi yona yayifumaneka kuphela kumaNdiya eHimalaya.

Isafroni

Xa kuthunyelwa uninzi lwezi ziqholo kwaSirayeli kwakufuneka kunqunyulwe eArabhiya. Incwadi i-The Book of Spices ithi esi yayisesinye sezizathu zokuba yaba yiArabhiya “kuphela eyayishishina ngokuthutha izinto ezithengiswayo phakathi kwamazwe aseMpuma nawaseNtshona” kwiminyaka yokuqala eliwaka okanye amawaka amabini ngaphambi kwexesha eliqhelekileyo. Iidolophu zamandulo, iinqaba kunye neendawo ezazimisa iikharavani kummandla iNegev ekumazantsi akwaSirayeli zibonisa indlela  eyayihamba abathengisi beziqholo. Isebe leWorld Heritage Centre kumbutho i-UNESCO ithi ezi ndawo “zikwabonisa nendlela olwalunengeniso ngayo eli shishini . . . ukususela kumazantsi eArabhiya ukusa kummandla weMeditera.”

“Isixa sasisincinane, ixabiso liphezulu, zithandwa ngabantu, iziqholo zaziphambili kwezoshishino.”I-The Book of Spices

Iikharavani ezizele qhu zezi ziqholo zinuka kamnandi zazihlala zihamba kule ndlela inqumla kummandla weArabhiya ongumgama onokuba ziikhilomitha eziyi-1800. (Yobhi 6:19) IBhayibhile ithetha ngekharavani yabarhwebi abangamaIshmayeli eyayithwele iziqholo ezifana ‘nentlaka emhlophe, ibhalsam kunye nentlaka emnandi’ besuka eGiliyadi, besiya eYiputa. (Genesis 37:25) Oonyana bakaYakobi bamthengisa umntakwabo uYosefu njengekhoboka kwaba barhwebi.

“ELONA QHINGA LOKUSHISHINA”

Idile

Abarhwebi baseArabhiya babetsal’ iintambo kushishino lweziqholo ezininzi kangangamakhulu eminyaka. Yaba ngabo kuphela ababethengisa iziqholo zaseAsiya ezifana nekasiya kunye nesinamoni. Ukuze athintele abantu bakummandla weMeditera ekuzithengeleni ngokwabo ezi ziqholo kumazwe aseMpuma, amaArabhiya ayesasaza amabali athetha ngendlela ekwakububungozi ngayo ukufumana ezo ziqholo. Incwadi i-The Book of Spices ithi eyona ndawo ayezifumana kuyo iziqholo “kufanele ukuba yaba lelona qhinga lawo lokushishina.”

Ikumin

Ayesithini la mabali? Umbhali-mbali ongumGrike uHerodotus owayephila ngenkulungwane yesihlanu ngaphambi kwexesha eliqhelekileyo wabalisa ngamabali eentaka ezoyikekayo ezazineendlwana kwimithi yesinamoni kumawa angenakufikelelwa mntu. Ukuze ubani afumane esi siqholo sixabisekileyo, kwakufuneka abeke isigede seqatha lenyama kumazantsi elo liwa. Ngenxa yokunyoluka, ezi ntaka zazithatha inyama eninzi kangangokuba indlwana yayisindwa de iye kuwa bhuma phantsi. La madoda ayeye  aqokelele amaxolo esinamoni ngokukhawuleza, aze emva koko awathengisele abarhwebi. Aduma kakhulu amabali anje. I-The Book of Spices ithi “[isinamoni] yayithengiswa ngexabiso eliphezulu kakhulu ngenxa yendlela ekwakusithiwa kububungozi ngayo ukuyifumana.”

Ityeleba (i-mint)

Ekuhambeni kwexesha lakrotyelwa iqhinga lamaArabhiya, abe ke alahlekelwa njalo licham lokutsal’ iintambo kushishino lweziqholo. Kwathi kufika inkulungwane yokuqala ngaphambi kwexesha eliqhelekileyo sabe isixeko saseAlexandria eYiputa sitshotsha phambili kushishino lweziqholo ibe sinezibuko leenqanawa elithuthela iziqholo kwamanye amazwe. Iinqanawa zaseRoma eziya eIndiya zaqalisa ukuhamba ngakumazibuko aseYiputa zakufumanisa ukuba izitshingitshane ezibakho nyaka ngamnye kulwandlekazi lwaseIndiya ziwanceda afike msinya. Loo nto yabangela ukuba iziqholo ezazixabisekile zifumaneke lula, ehla ke namaxabiso azo.

Namhlanje amaxabiso eziqholo awanakuthelekiswa nokuthelekiswa nawegolide, ibe awunakufane ucinge ngazo xa kuthethwa ngezipho ezifanele ukumkani. Sekunjalo, izigidi zabantu emhlabeni wonke zisaqhubeka zizisebenzisa ekwenzeni iziqholo zokusinukisa kamnandi, amayeza nokunonga ukutya. Ivumba elimnandi leziqholo lisazenza zithandwe kakhulu namhlanje njengokuba kwakunjalo nakumawaka eminyaka eyadlulayo.

Isinamoni

^ isiqe. 3 Igama eliguqulelwe ngokuthi “iziqholo” ngokolwimi lokubhalwa kweBhayibhile lithetha iziqholo ezenziwe ngezityalo, kungekhona izinongo zokutya.

^ isiqe. 4 “Ioli yebhalsam” ithetha iioli ezinuka kamnandi okanye intlaka efumaneka emithini nasemahlahleni.

Funda Okungakumbi

IBHAYIBHILE—SITHINI ISIGIDIMI SAYO?

AmaSirayeli Azifunela Ukumkani

Xa amaSirayeli azifunela ukumkani, uYehova wakhetha uSawule. Kwakutheni ukuze uYehova abeke uDavide endaweni kaKumkani uSawule?