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IMBONISELO DISEMBA 2014

ITimgad—Isixeko Esanyamalalayo Sityhila Iimfihlo Zaso

ITimgad—Isixeko Esanyamalalayo Sityhila Iimfihlo Zaso

UMKHENKETHI ozithembileyo uJames Bruce waseSkotlani uthe manga koko akubonayo. Kwintlango yaseAlgeria qelele phayaa, ubona inqaba yamandulo yaseRoma. Ukufumanisa kwakhe le ndawo ngo-1765, lo mkhenkethi wayengaqondanga ukuba umi kumanxiwa esona sixeko sikhulu samaRoma sakha sakhiwa kuMntla Afrika— iThamugadi yamandulo, ngoku ebizwa ngokuba yiTimgad.

Emva kwexesha elingaphezu kwenkulungwane, ngo-1881, abembi bezinto zakudala baseFransi baqalisa ukuvumbulula iintsalela ezigcineke kakuhle zeTimgad. Bagqiba kwelokuba abemi balapho babephila ubomi obutofotofo kakhulu, nakuba esi sixeko sasikwindawo engumqwebedu. Kwakutheni ukuze amaRoma akhe isixeko esifumileyo kwindawo enjalo? Singafunda ntoni kwesi sixeko nabemi baso?

IQHINGA

Xa amaRoma ayesandisa ulawulo lwawo kuMntla Afrika ngenkulungwane yokuqala ngaphambi kwexesha eliqhelekileyo, aye achaswa ngamandla zizizwe zalapho. Ayeza kwenza njani ukuze kubekho uxolo? Okokuqala, amajoni omkhosi weThird Augustan Legion akha iinkampu eziliqela ezikhuselekileyo kummandla obanzi weentaba obizwa ngokuba ngumntla weAlgeria. Kamva, akha isixeko saseTimgad, kodwa esakhela injongo eyahluke mpela.

AmaRoma ayesithi iTimgad yakhelwe amagqala emfazwe adla umhlala-phantsi, kodwa esona sizathu sokwakhiwa kwesi sixeko yayikukudodobalisa inkcaso yezizwe zalapho. Iqhinga lawo lasebenza. Xa abantu bezi zizwe babesiya kuthengisa eTimgad, babetsalwa bubomi balapho obutofotofo. Befuna ukwamkelwa eTimgad, apho kwakuhlala abemi baseRoma kuphela, ngokuzithandela, abantu abaninzi bezo zizwe baba ngamajoni eRoman Legion iminyaka eyi-25 ukuze bona nenzala yabo babe ngabemi baseRoma ngokusemthethweni.

Benganelisekanga kukuba ngabemi baseRoma nje kuphela, abanye abantu abangama-Afrika baye bafumana izikhundla ezisemanqwanqweni eTimgad nakwezinye izixeko eziphantsi kolawulo lwaseRoma. Iqhinga ayelele kulo amaRoma laphumelela, kangangokuba kwisiqingatha nje senkulungwane emva kokwakhiwa kweTimgad, uninzi lwabantu ababehlala khona ngabantu bezizwe zakuMntla Afrika.

IROMA IQHATHA ABEMI BALAPHO

Imarike eneentsika ezintle neendawo zokuthengisela

AmaRoma akwazi njani ukubaqhatha ngokukhawuleza kangaka abantu bakuMntla Afrika?  Enye yezinto awazenzayo kukubanika amalungelo afanayo nawabemi baseRoma, nto leyo eyayibabazwa yinkokeli yamaRoma uCicero. Umhlaba wawabiwe ngendlela elinganayo phakathi kwamagqala emfazwe amaRoma nabantu abangamaAfrika. Isixeko sasakhiwe ngobuchule, sinezindlu ezizizikwemitha eziyi-20, ezazahlulwe zizitrato ezincinane. Ngokuqinisekileyo zazibatsala aba bantu ezo zinto.

Njengakwizixeko ezininzi zaseRoma, abemi babedibana kwindawo ethile ngemihla yoshishino ukuze baphulaphule iindaba ezisematheni okanye badlale imidlalo. Ngokuqinisekileyo, abantu bomthonyama ababehlala kwimimandla eneentaba eziyimiqwebedu kufutshane nalapho babekhe bazibone nabo benyantsula kwimithunzi yeso sixeko mhla ligqatse ubhobhoyi, okanye bezipholele kwelinye laloo maqula njengoko besiva isandi esimyoli samanzi athontsizayo. Mhlawumbi babekhe babe nombono wabo behleli ngakwimithombo yamanzi ahlaziyayo bencokola nabahlobo. Yonke nje le nto yayinokubonakala iliphupha kubo.

Ilitye lengcwaba elinemifanekiso yothixo oneziqu ezithathu

Ibala lokubukela imidlalo yeqonga lalizirhwebesha lula iintliziyo zabemi balapho. Eli bala elalithwala abantu abangaphezu kwe-3 500, lalizala lime ngeembambo zizihlwele ezinentswahla zaseTimgad nakwizixeko ezikufuphi. Ngemidlalo yeqonga eyayidla ngokuba namanyala nobundlobongela, abadlali babengcamlisa ababukeli kumanyala awayezonwabisa ngawo amaRoma.

Nonqulo lwaseRoma lwaba negalelo. Izindlu zalapho zokuhlambela zazihonjiswe ngemibala ebhanyabhanya ebonisa iintsomi zonqulo lobuxoki. Ngenxa yokuba abantu babehlamba yonke imihla, baya beqhelana noothixo kunye nonqulo lwaseRoma. Ilinge labo lokuguqula abantu baseAfrika baphile njengamaRoma laphumelela kangangokuba amatye abo amangcwaba ayehonjiswe ngemifanekiso yoothixo abaneziqu ezithathu ababenqulwa kuloo mmandla naseRoma.

ESI SIXEKO SIHLE SITHI SHWAKA

Emva kokuba uMlawuli uTrajan eseke esi sixeko ngo-100 C.E., amaRoma aye aqalisa ukulima iinkozo, ukwenza ioli yomnquma newayini kulo lonke eloMntla Afrika. Kungekudala, lo mmandla waba ngumzi-mveliso wokutya okuziinkozo, ioli yomnquma newayini kulo lonke elaseRoma. Njengezinye izixeko ezaziphantsi kwamaRoma, nayo iTimgad yachuma. Ekuhambeni kwexesha, abemi baseTimgad banda, yaye nesixeko sakhula saya kutsho ngaphaya kweendonga zaso ezinqatyisiweyo.

Iipokotho zabantu ababehlala ezidolophini nababenemihlaba zaba ntle ngenxa yokushishina kwabo neRoma, kodwa iliwa lalibhek’ umoya kumafama asekuhlaleni. Phaya kwiminyaka yee-200 C.E., amafama avukela ekhalazela ingcinezelo nerhafu ebaxiweyo. Amanye awo awayeguqukele kubuKatolika ajoyina amaDonatists—iqela lamaKristu elalisilwa nxamnye nobuqhetseba obabusenziwa kwiCawa yamaKatolika.—Funda ibhokisi ethi “ AmaDonatists—‘AyengeyoCawa Enyulu’

Emva kwamakhulu eminyaka kuxatyanwa ngezonqulo, isilwa yodwa yaye ihlaselwa naziintshaba,  iRoma yaya iphelelwa ngamandla kuMntla Afrika. Phayaa kwiminyaka yee-500 C.E, iTimgad yatshiswa ziintlanga zama-Arabhu, ibe ekugqibeleni yathi shwaka iminyaka engaphezu kweyi-1 000.

“NABO KE UBOMI”

Umbhalo wesiLatini othi: “Ukuzingela, ukuhlamba, ukudlala, ukuhleka—nabo ke ubomi!”

Abembi bezinto zakudala abavumbulula amabhodlo aseTimgad, bamangaliswa ngumbhalo wesiLatin abawufumana apho. Uthi: “Ukuzingela, ukuhlamba, ukudlala, ukuhleka—nabo ke ubomi!” Omnye umbhali-mbali ongumFrentshi wathi le “yindlela yokucinga yabantu abaphila nje udunkunku, nangona abanye besenokucinga ukuba yeyona ibhadlileyo.”

Eneneni, amaRoma ayesele enethuba ephila ngolu hlobo. Umpostile uPawulos owayephila ngexesha labapostile wathetha ngabantu ababenembono yokuthi “masidle size sisele, kuba ngomso siza kufa.” Nangona ayenqula, amaRoma ayephilela unamhlanje, engazikhathazi kangako ngeyona njongo yobomi. UPawulos walumkisa amaKristu awayekhonza kunye nawo ukuba azikhwebule kubantu abanjalo, xa wathi: “Ningalahlekiswa. Unxulumano olubi lonakalisa imikhwa elungileyo.”—1 Korinte 15:32, 33.

Nangona abantu baseTimgad babephila kwiminyaka eyi-1 500 eyadlulayo, indlela abantu namhlanje ababujonga ngayo ubomi ayahlukanga kangako kweyabo. Abantu abaninzi baphilela nje unamhlanje. Bathi akhonto imbi kwindlela awayebujonga ngayo ubomi amaRoma, enoba injani na imiphumo. Noko ke iBhayibhile izichaza ngendlela elula necacileyo izinto xa isithi: “Imeko yeli hlabathi iyatshintsha.” Ngenxa yoko ithi ‘masingalisebenzisi ngokupheleleyo eli hlabathi.’—1 Korinte 7:31.

Eyona nto ingqinwa ngamabhodlo aseTimgad kukuba, ukonwaba kwethu ebomini akuxhomekekanga ekuthobeleni umbhalo owafunyanwa phantsi kwesanti yoMntla Afrika. Kunoko, kuxhomekeke ekuthobeleni le vesi yeBhayibhile ethi: “Ihlabathi liyadlula nenkanuko yalo, kodwa lowo wenza ukuthanda kukaThixo uhleli ngonaphakade.”—1 Yohane 2:17.

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