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IMBONISELO SEPTEMBA 2014

Inguqulelo Yolwimi LwaseSiriya—Isikrobisa Kwiinguqulelo Zamandulo ZeBhayibhile

Inguqulelo Yolwimi LwaseSiriya—Isikrobisa Kwiinguqulelo Zamandulo ZeBhayibhile

Kangangeentsuku ezisithoba ngo-1892, uAgnes Smith Lewis noMargaret Dunlop Gibson bahamba ngenkamela begugutha kwindlela enqumla entlango ukuya kwiKhaya loonongendi iSt. Catherine, elikumazantsi eNtaba yeSinayi. Kwakutheni ukuze la mabhinqa mabini awayengaphaya kweminyaka eyi-40 ubudala, abe kolu hambo ngexesha ekwakuyingozi ngalo ukuhamba kummandla waseMpuma? Impendulo ingakunceda uyithembe nangakumbi iBhayibhile.

UAgnes Smith Lewis neKhaya loonongendi iSt. Catherine

NGAPHAMBI kokuba abuyele ezulwini, uYesu wayalela abafundi bakhe ukuba banikele ubungqina ngaye “eYerusalem nakulo lonke elakwaYuda naseSamariya kude kuse nakwezona nxalenye zikude zomhlaba.” (IZenzo 1:8) Abafundi bakhe baba nenzondelelo nesibindi kulo msebenzi. Noko ke, ukushumayela kwabo eYerusalem kwabangela inkcaso ekrakra eyaphumela ekubulaweni kukaStefano. Abanye babafundi bakaYesu babalekela kwa-Antiyokwe, eSiriya, esesinye sezona zixeko zikhulu kuBukhosi baseRoma, nesikumgama weekhilomitha eziyi-550 ukuya kumantla eYerusalem.—IZenzo 11:19.

Kwa-Antiyokwe abafundi baqhubeka ‘bevakalisa iindaba ezilungileyo’ ngoYesu, ibe abaninzi kwabo bangengomaYuda baba ngamakholwa. (IZenzo 11:20, 21) Nangona isiGrike sasithethwa kakhulu kwa-Antiyokwe, kwakuthethwa ulwimi lwaseSiriya kwimimandla engaphandle kwesixeko nakwiphondo.

UKUGUQULELWA ‘KWEENDABA EZILUNGILEYO’ NGOLWIMI LWASESIRIYA

Njengoko laliqhubeka lisanda inani lamaKristu athetha ulwimi lwaseSiriya ngenkulungwane yesibini, kwabakho imfuneko yokuba kuguqulelwe “iindaba ezilungileyo” ngolwimi  lwabo. Ngoko ke, kubonakala ukuba iZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike zaguqulelwa okokuqala ngolwimi lwaseSiriya, kungekhona isiLatini.

Malunga nonyaka ka-170 C.E., umbhali waseSiriya uTatian (owayephila malunga nonyaka ka-120-173 C.E.) waqokelela inkcazelo ekwiincwadi ezine zeVangeli, waza wayidibanisa kwincwadi enye yolwimi lwaseSiriya okanye isiGrike, eyayibizwa ngokuba yiDiatessaron, gama elo lesiGrike elithetha ukuthi “iincwadi ezine [zeVangeli].” Kamva, uEphraem ongumSiriya (owayephila ngonyaka ka-310-373 C.E.) wabhala incwadi ethetha ngale Diatessaron, nto leyo eqinisekisa ukuba yayisetyenziswa ngamaKristu aseSiriya.

IDiatessaron ibangela umdla nyhani kubantu namhlanje. Kutheni kunjalo nje? Kwinkulungwane ye-19, abanye abaphengululi babesithi iincwadi zeVangeli zabhalwa kamva ngenkulungwane yesibini, ukususela kunyaka ka-130 C.E. ukusa ku-170 C.E., yaye ngenxa yoko azinakuba nangxelo ichanileyo ngobomi bukaYesu. Noko ke, imibhalo-ngqangi yamandulo yeDiatessaron eyafunyanwayo ukususela ngela xesha yabonisa ukuba iincwadi zeVangeli ezabhalwa nguMateyu, uMarko, uLuka, noYohane zazisele zisetyenziswa ngabantu abaninzi ngenkulungwane yesibini. Xa kunjalo, zifanele ukuba zabhalwa ngaphambi koko. Okungakumbi kukuba, ekubeni uTatian engazange ayiquke kwincwadi yakhe iDiatessaron inkcazelo ekwezinye iincwadi ekwakusithiwa zezevangeli, kuyacaca ukuba ezi ncwadi kwakungenakuthenjelwa kuzo.

IPeshitta yolwimi lwaseSiriya eneencwadi ezintlanu zokuqala zeBhayibhile, yonyaka ka-464 C.E., yeyesibini kweyona mibhalo-ngqangi midala yeBhayibhile

Ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yesihlanu, inguqulelo yeBhayibhile yolwimi lwaseSiriya yasetyenziswa kakhulu kumantla eMesopotamiya. Le nguqulelo yenkulungwane yesibini okanye yesithathu, yayinazo zonke iincwadi zeBhayibhile ngaphandle nje kweyesi-2 kaPetros, eyesi-2 neyesi-3 kaYohane, ekaYude neyeSityhilelo. Ibizwa ngokuba yiPeshitta, gama elo elithetha inguqulelo “Elula” okanye “Ecacileyo.” Le nguqulelo yenye yezona zindala nezibalulekileyo ezibubungqina bokuba iBhayibhile ichanile.

Okubangel’ umdla kukuba, omnye umbhalo-ngqangi wale nguqulelo ubonisa unyaka owabhalwa ngawo (459-460 C.E.), nto leyo ethetha ukuba le yenye yezona nguqulelo zakudala zeBhayibhile. Malunga nonyaka ka-508 C.E., yahlaziywa inguqulelo yePeshitta kwaza kongezelelwa neencwadi ezintlanu ezazingekho kweyokuqala. Le nguqulelo ihlaziyiweyo yabizwa ngokuba yiPhiloxenian Version.

KWAFUNYANWA IMIBHALO-NGQANGI ENGAKUMBI

De kube yinkulungwane ye-19, phantse yonke imibhalo-ngqangi yeZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike yayiyeyenkulungwane yesihlanu okanye emva koko. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, abaphengululi beBhayibhile babenomdla okhethekileyo kwiVulgate yesiLatini nakwiPeshitta yolwimi lwaseSiriya. Abanye babekholelwa ukuba iPeshitta yayiyinguqulelo ehlaziyiweyo yombhalo-ngqangi wamandulo wolwimi lwaseSiriya. Kodwa ke awukho umbhalo-ngqangi onjalo owawusaziwa ngabantu. Ekubeni le nguqulelo yabhalwa ngenkulungwane yesibini, isikrobisa kwimibhalo-ngqangi yokuqala yeBhayibhile, ibe ngokuqinisekileyo ixabisekile kubaphengululi beBhayibhile! Ngaba ngokwenene yayikhona inguqulelo yamandulo yolwimi lwaseSiriya? Ngaba ingafumaneka?

Umbhalo-ngqangi iSinaitic Syriac. Ecaleni kubonakala umbhalo ocinyiweyo weencwadi zeVangeli

Ewe, yayikhona! Kwafunyanwa emibini yayo eyayibhalwe ngolwimi lwaseSiriya. Eyokuqala yabhalwa ngenkulungwane yesihlanu. Iphakathi kwemibhalo-ngqangi yolwimi lwaseSiriya eyafunyanwa ngo-1842 kwikhaya loonongendi elikwiNtlango iNitrian eYiputa, yaza yagcinwa kwiMyuziyam yaseBritani. Ibizwa ngokuba yiCuretonian Syriac ngenxa yokuba yafunyanwa yaza yapapashwa nguWilliam Cureton, owayelisekela lalowo wayegcina le mibhalo-ngqangi. Olu xwebhu luxabisekileyo luqulethe iincwadi ezine zeVangeli ezilandelelana ngale ndlela, uMateyu, uMarko, uYohane noLuka.

Umbhalo-ngqangi wesibini owafunyanwayo ubizwa ngokuba yiSinaitic Syriac. Imvelaphi yawo isusela kulaa mawele akhaliphileyo achazwe ekuqaleni kweli  nqaku. Nangona uAgnes wayengenaso isidanga saseyunivesithi, wafunda iilwimi ezisibhozo, ekukho phakathi kwazo olwaseSiriya. Ngo-1892 uAgnes wafumana eyona nto ibalulekileyo kwikhaya loonongendi iSt. Catherine eYiputa.

Wafumana umbhalo-ngqangi wolwimi lwaseSiriya kwigunjana elimnyama. Uchaza athi, “Wawungekho kwimeko entle, umdaka ngeyona ndlela, ibe amaphepha awo ayencamathelene kuba ebengatyhilwa” kangangamakhulu eminyaka. Yayingumbhalo-ngqangi ekuye kwacinywa kuwo inguqulelo yokuqala kwaza kwabhalwa ngokutsha eyolwimi lwaseSiriya ethetha ngeengcwele ezingamabhinqa. Noko ke, uAgnes wabhaqa enye yale nguqulelo yayicinyiwe, eyayinamazwi “kaMateyu,” okanye “uMarko” okanye “uLuka.” Le nguqulelo yayinengxelo yeencwadi ezine zeVangeli ngolwimi lwaseSiriya! Abaphengululi bakholelwa ukuba yabhalwa ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yesine.

ISinaitic Syriac igqalwa njengombhalo-ngqangi obalulekileyo weBhayibhile, njengoko kunjalo nangemibhalo-ngqangi yesiGrike enjengeCodex Sinaiticus neCodex Vaticanus. Abantu abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba imibhalo-ngqangi iCuretonian neSinaitic yeyona midala kunayo yonke ekhoyo namhlanje.

‘ILIZWI LOTHIXO WETHU LIHLALA NGONAPHAKADE’

Ngaba le mibhalo-ngqangi inokuba luncedo kubafundi beBhayibhile namhlanje? Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo! Ngokomzekelo, cinga ngomqukumbelo owongezelelweyo kwezinye iiBhayibhile emva kukaMarko 16:8. Uyavela kwinguqulelo yesiGrike iCodex Alexandrinus yenkulungwane yesihlanu, kwiVulgate yesiLatini nakwezinye. Noko ke, imibhalo-ngqangi emibini enokuthenjwa yesiGrike—iCodex Sinaiticus neCodex Vaticanus—yomibini iphela kuMarko 16:8. Kanti nayo iSinaitic Syriac ayinawo umqukumbelo owongezelelweyo, nto leyo ebubungqina obungakumbi bokuba wawungekho kwincwadi yantlandlolo yeVangeli kaMarko.

Nanku omnye umzekelo. Kwinkulungwane ye-19 phantse kuzo zonke iinguqulelo zeBhayibhile kwaye kongezelelwa inkcazelo ebubuxoki yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu kweyoku-1 kaYohane 5:7. Noko ke, le nkcazelo yongezelelweyo ayiveli kwimibhalo-ngqangi yesiGrike yamandulo. Ingaveli ke phofu nakwinguqulelo yePeshitta, nto leyo engqina ukuba ibubuxoki.

Kuyacaca ukuba, kanye njengoko wayethembisile, uYehova uThixo uligcine likhona iLizwi lakhe Elingcwele. Kulo sifumana esi sithembiso: “Ingca eluhlaza yomile, intyatyambo ibunile; kodwa ke lona ilizwi loThixo wethu, liya kuhlala ukusa kwixesha elingenammiselo.” (Isaya 40:8; 1 Petros 1:25) Inguqulelo yolwimi lwaseSiriya idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekusasazweni kwesigidimi seBhayibhile ebantwni bonke.

Funda Okungakumbi

IBhayibhile—Incwadi Evela KuThixo

Inokukunceda njani iBhayibhile ukuba uhlangabezane neengxaki onazo? Kutheni umele uzikholelwe iziprofeto eziseBhayibhileni?