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IMBONISELO JUNI 2014

Abantu Abathathu Ababefuna Inyaniso Ngeminyaka Yee-1500—Bafumana Ntoni?

Abantu Abathathu Ababefuna Inyaniso Ngeminyaka Yee-1500—Bafumana Ntoni?

“YINTONI na inyaniso?” Lowo ngumbuzo uPontiyo Pilato ongumRoma, nowayeyirhuluneli yelakwaYuda, awawubuza uYesu kwinkundla yamatyala. (Yohane 18:38) Enyanisweni, uPilato wayengenamsebenzi nanyaniso. Ntonje wayebuza kuba eyithandabuza okanye engayikholelwa inyaniso. Kubonakala ukuba, kuPilato ayikho into ekuthiwa yinyaniso, kunoko yiloo nto nje umntu ayikholelwayo. Abaninzi namhlanje bavakalelwa kanye ngaloo ndlela.

AmaRhamente aseYurophu ayedidekile ziinkolelo zonqulo ngeminyaka yee-1500. Ayefundiswe ukuba upopu ukwesona sikhundla siphakamileyo, ibe iimfundiso zecawa azimele ziphikiswe. Kodwa adidwa kukuvela kweengcamango ezintsha ezeza nabaHlaziyi baseYurophu. Yintoni awayemele ayikholelwe? Ayeza kuyibona ngantoni inyaniso?

Ngelo xesha, kwakukho amadoda amathathu, phakathi kwamanye amaninzi awayezimisele ukuyifumana inyaniso. * Enza ntoni ukuze ohlule inyaniso kubuxoki? Yaye afumana ntoni? Makhe sibone.

‘MAKUSOLOKO KUBALASELISWA IMFUNDISO YEBHAYIBHILE’

UWolfgang Capito wayengumfana owayezinikele kakhulu kunqulo. UCapito wayefundele ezamayeza, ezomthetho nezakwalizwi, ngoko ngo-1512 waba ngumfundisi, waza kamva waba yintonga esekhosi kabhishophu waseMainz.

Ekuqaleni wazama ukutshintsha imbono yabahlaziyi ababephikisa imfundiso yobuKatolika. Noko ke, kungekudala uCapito waqalisa ukuvumelana nabahlaziyi. Wenza ntoni? Umbhali-mbali uJames M. Kittelson uthi xa kwabuzwa uCapito ngendlela azijonga ngayo iimfundiso ezahlukahlukeneyo, wathi “owona mthombo omele ukhokele iimfundiso zabo yiBhayibhile, kuba yiyo kuphela eyayithetha inyaniso.” Ngoko uCapito wagqiba kwelokuba imfundiso yokuba isonka newayini zitshintsha zibe ngumzimba kaYesu wokoqobo nenkolelo yokunqulwa kweengcwele, aziphumi eBhayibhileni. (Funda ibhokisi ethi “ Bona Ukuba Ezi Zinto Ziyinyaniso Na.”) Ngo-1523 uCapito wasishiya isikhundla sakhe sokusebenza nobhishophu waza wayokuhlala eStrasbourg apho abaHlaziyi bonqulo babehlala khona ngelo xesha.

 Indlu kaCapito eStrasbourg yaba yindawo yokuxoxa ngeBhayibhile yabantu ababephikisa iimfundiso zecawa. Nangona abanye abaHlaziyi babesayixhasa imfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu, incwadi iThe Radical Reformation ibonisa ukuba uCapito “wayengayivezi imbono yakhe ngemfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu.” Kwakutheni? Kaloku uCapito wayithanda indlela umfundisi waseSpeyin uMichael Servetus awabonisa ngayo ukuba iBhayibhile ayingqinelani nemfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu. *

UCapito wayeyiqonda into yokuba, xa umntu engangqinelani nemfundiso yokuba uThixo uneziqu ezithathu wayenokubulawa. Yiloo nto eyambangela ukuba angaluvezi uluvo lwakhe. Nakuba kunjalo, incwadi yakhe ibonisa ukuba kwanangaphambi kokuba adibane noServetus, wayengayikholelwa imfundiso yokuba uThixo uneziqu ezithathu. Kamva umfundisi wamaKatolika wabhala ukuba, uCapito neqela lakhe “baye bagqugula ngasese begatya iimfundiso ezisisiseko zecawa, baza bayikhaba imfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu.” Kwiminyaka elikhulu kamva, uCapito kwathethwa ngaye njengoyena unkqenkqeza phambili kubabhali ababechasa imfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu.

UWolfgang Capito wayekholewa ukuba eyona mpazamo inkulu yecawa ibe “kukutyeshela iZibhalo”

UCapito wayekholelwa ukuba inyaniso ifumaneka eBhayibhileni. Wathi: “Makusoloko kubalaseliswa imfundiso yeBhayibhile kunye nomthetho kaKristu.” Ngokutsho kukaGqr. Kittelson, uCapito “wagxininisa into yokuba eyona mpazamo inkulu yabefundisi ibe kukutyeshela iZibhalo.”

Omnye umntu owayezimisele ukwazi inyaniso ekwiLizwi likaThixo nguMartin Cellarius (owayesakubizwa ngokuba nguMartin Borrhaus), umfana owayehlala kwikhaya likaCapito ngo-1526.

“ULWAZI NGOTHIXO OYINYANISO”

Uqweqwe lwencwadi kaMartin Cellarius ethi On the Works of God apho athelekisa iimfundiso zecawa neBhayibhile

UCellarius owazalwa ngo-1499, wayengumfundi ophum’ izandla wezakwalizwi nefilosofi owathi kamva waba ngutitshala eWittenberg, eJamani. Ekubeni uHlaziyo lwaluqatsele eWittenberg, ekufikeni kwakhe apho, uCellarius wadibana noMartin Luther nabanye ababefuna ukuhlaziya iimfundiso zecawa. Wayeza kwazi njani ke uCellarius ukwahlula iingcamango zabantu kwinyaniso yeZibhalo?

Incwadi iTeaching the Reformation ithi, uCellarius wayekholelwa ukuba ukuze sifumane ulwazi oluchanileyo simele “sizifunde ngokucokisekileyo iZibhalo sithelekisa ivesi nevesi, yaye sithandaze size siguquke.” Wazuza ntoni ke ekufundisiseni kwakhe iBhayibhile?

NgoJulayi ka-1527 uCellarius wakubhala oko akuzuzileyo kwincwadi ethi On the Works of God. Wabhala ukuba isonka newayini ezazityiwa ecaweni ngomthendeleko zaziyimifuziselo nje kuphela. UProfesa uRobin Barnes uthi, kule ncwadi yakhe uCellarius “uchaza nangeziprofeto zezibhalo zokuza kwexesha lobunzima elaliza kulandelwa lixesha loxolo.”—2 Petros 3:10-13.

Enye into ebangel’ umdla yindlela uCellarius awamchaza ngayo uYesu Kristu. Nangona engazange athi ibubuvuvu into yokuba uThixo uneziqu ezithathu, uCellarius wamahlula “uBawo Osezulwini kuNyana wakhe uYesu Kristu,” ibe wathi uYesu ungomnye woothixo noonyana abaninzi bakaThixo usomandla.—Yohane 10:34, 35.

Kwincwadi yakhe ethi Antitrinitarian Biography (1850), uRobert Wallace wathi, xa ebhala uCellarius wayengabambeleli kwimfundiso yoThixo oneziqu ezithathu eyayixhaphakile ngeminyaka yee-1500. *  Ngoko abaphengululi abaninzi bagqiba kwelokuba uCellarius wayengasayikholelwa le mfundiso. Bamchaza njengesinye sezixhobo “zokudlulisela ulwazi ngoThixo oyinyaniso nangoKristu.”

ITHEMBA LEENGUQU

Malunga nonyaka ka-1527 umfundi ophum’ izandla wezakwalizwi uJohannes Campanus, wafudukela eWittenberg. UCampanus wayezigatya iimfundiso zikaMartin Luther owayetshotsh’ entla kuHlaziyo lonqulo. Ngoba?

UCampanus wayikhaba ngaw’ omane imfundiso yokuba isonka newayini zijika zibe ngumzimba negazi likaYesu, kunye neyokuba eSidlweni SeNkosi kubakho nomzimba kaYesu. * Ngokutsho kuka-André Séguenny, uCampanus wayekholelwa ukuba “ngomthendeleko iSonka sihlala sisisonka, kodwa sifuzisela umzimba kaKristu.” KwiNkomfa yaseMarburg yonyaka ka-1529 ekwakuxovulwa kuyo wona kanye lo mba, uCampanus wavalw’ umlomo ukuze angathethi ngoko wayekufunde eZibhalweni. Emva koko, waqalisa ukunuk’ umzondo kwabanye abaHlaziyi baseWittenberg.

Kwincwadi yakhe iRestitution uJohannes Campanus wayiphikisa imfundiso yokuba uThixo uneziqu ezithathu

Eyona nto yacaphukisa abaHlaziyi yayikukwahlukanisa kukaCampanus uYise, uNyana nomoya oyingcwele. Ngo-1532 kwincwadi ethi Restitution uCampanus wabhala ukuba uYesu noYise bangabantu abohlukeneyo. Wathi uYise noNyana “banye” njengoko indoda nomfazi kusithiwa “banyama-nye” kuba bemanyene, kodwa bengabantu ababini. (Yohane 10:30; Mateyu 19:5) UCampanus wabonisa nokuba iZibhalo zikwasebenzisa lo mzekelo mnye xa zichaza igunya uYise analo phezu koNyana: “Intloko yomfazi yindoda; intloko kaKristu nguThixo.”—1 Korinte 11:3.

Wathini ngomoya oyingcwele? UCampanus waphinda wathanda enye imfundiso yeBhayibhile waza wabhala wathi: “Asikho iSibhalo esithi uMoya oyiNgcwele ungumntu wesithathu . . . Umoya oyingcwele ungamandla uThixo awasebenzisayo ekwenzeni zonke izinto.”—Genesis 1:2.

ULuther wathi uCampanus ngumnyelisi nomchasi woNyana kaThixo. Omnye umHlaziyi yena wade wathi makacinyw’ igama. Sekunjalo, uCampanus akazange atyhafe. NgokweThe Radical Reformation “uCampanus wayeqinisekile ukuba ukulahlwa kwale mfundiso yabapostile neyeBhayibhile yobuntloko bukaThixo kuko okwabangela ukuwa kweCawa.”

Yayingeyonjongo kaCampanus ukuzivulela eyakhe icawa. Wathi “kudala ezingela inyaniso kwiimvaba ngeemvaba nakubantu ngabantu,” suke wabuya nemband’ esikhova. Ngoko wayenethemba lokuba iCawa yamaKatolika yayiza kwenza iinguqu, ize ibuyisele imfundiso yamaKristu okwenyaniso. Kodwa ekugqibeleni wabanjwa ngamaKatolika, yaye kusenokwenzeka ukuba wathothoza iminyaka eyi-20 entolongweni. Ababhali-mbali bakholelwa ukuba wafa malunga nonyaka ka-1575.

“QINISEKANI NGEZINTO ZONKE”

Ukufunda iBhayibhile ngokucokisekileyo kwabangela uCapito, uCellarius, uCampanus, nabanye  bakwazi ukwahlula inyaniso kubuxoki. Nakuba la madoda engazange ayifumane ngokupheleleyo inyaniso yeBhayibhile, kodwa ngokuthobeka aziphengulula iZibhalo aza akuxabisa oko akufundayo.

Umpostile uPawulos wabongoza amaKristu wathi: “Qinisekani ngezinto zonke; nibambelele nkqi koko kuhle.” (1 Tesalonika 5:21) AmaNgqina kaYehova aye apapasha incwadi ethi Yintoni Ngokwenene Efundiswa YiBhayibhile? ukuze akuncede ufumane inyaniso.

^ isiqe. 4 Funda ibhokisi ethi “Yekani Kukhule Ndawonye Kokubini, Kude Kube Sekuvuneni,” ekwiphepha 44 lencwadi ethi AmaNgqina KaYehova—Abavakalisi BoBukumkani BukaThixo, epapashwe ngamaNgqina kaYehova.

^ isiqe. 8 Funda inqaku elithi “UMichael Servetus Wema Yedwa Kwiphulo Lakhe Lokufuna Inyaniso,” kuVukani! kaMeyi 2006 opapashwe ngamaNgqina kaYehova.

^ isiqe. 17 Xa ithetha ngendlela uCellarius alibhale ngayo igama elithi “uthixo,” le ncwadi ithi: ‘Libhalwe ngokuthi deus xa libhekisela kuKristu, nangokuthi Deus xa libhekisela kuThixo Ophakamileyo.’

^ isiqe. 20 Yayiyimfundiso kaLuther ukuba eSidlweni SeNkosi sangokuhlwa kubakho isonka newayini kunye nomzimba kaYesu.