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IMBONISELO MATSHI 2014

Ukwazisa ILizwi LikaThixo Mandulo ESpeyin

Ukwazisa ILizwi LikaThixo Mandulo ESpeyin

“Ndithemba ukuba xa ndisiya eSpeyin, ndiya kuza kunikhangela nokuze nindikhaphe umganyana emva kokuba kunye nani okwethutyana.”—Roma 15:24.

UMPOSTILE uPawulos wawabhalela amaKristu aseRoma loo mazwi malunga nonyaka ka-56. IBhayibhile ayisichazeli ukuba uPawulos wade waya na eSpeyin. Esikwaziyo kukuba, ngenxa yeenzame zikaPawulos kunye nezabathunywa bevangeli abangamaKristu, iindaba ezilungileyo zeLizwi likaThixo iBhayibhile, zazisele zifikile eSpeyin kwiminyaka yee-100.

Kungekudala emva koko, kwiidolophu zaseSpeyin kwakusele kukho amaKristu amaninzi. Ngenxa yolo lwando, iiBhayibhile eziguqulelwe kwisiLatin zaba yimfuneko kubantu balapho. Ekubeni kwiminyaka yee-100 iSpeyin yayiphantsi kolawulo lwamaRoma, ngenxa yoko isiLatin saba lolona lwimi luthethwayo kuloo mmandla.

IIBHAYIBHILE ZESILATIN ZANCEDA

AmaKristu angaphambili eSpeyin aguqulela iiBhayibhile zesiLatin ezaziwa ngokuba yiVetus Latina Hispana. Ezi Bhayibhile zasetyenziswa kakhulu eSpeyin kangangeminyaka emininzi ngaphambi kokuba uJerome agqibe inguqulelo yakhe yesiLatin eyabizwa ngokuba yiVulgate, ngonyaka ka-405.

Inguqulelo kaJerome—awayigqiba ngoxa wayeseBhetelehem, ePalestina—yakhawuleza yafika eSpeyin. Oku kwabangelwa kukuba uLucinius, osisinhanha esasithanda ukufunda iBhayibhile, weva ngale nguqulelo yesiLatin kaJerome, waza wazifunela ikopi yayo. Wathumela ababhali abathandathu eBhetelehem ukuze bayikhuphele baze bamphathele yona eSpeyin. Kumakhulu eminyaka kamva, ngokuthe ngcembe iVulgate yayithabathel’ indawo iVetus Latina Hispana. Ezo nguqulelo zesiLatin zanceda abantu baseSpeyin bakwazi ukuyifunda nokuyiqonda lula iBhayibhile. Noko ke, njengokuba uBukhosi baseRoma baya buphelelwa, kwabakho imfuneko yeenguqulelo zezinye iilwimi.

IBHAYIBHILE EBHALWE KWIZILEYITI

Kwiminyaka yee-400, amaVisigoth kunye nezinye iintlanga zaseJamani, ahlasela aza oyisa iSpeyin, kwaza kwasetyenziswa ulwimi lwawo, isiGothic. Aba bahlaseli babekhonza kwicawa ekuthiwa yiArian, eyayingakholelwa kwimfundiso yoThixo Oneziqu Ezithathu. Beza neBhayibhile yabo yesiGothic, eyaziwa ngokuba yiUlfilas. Le Bhayibhile yasetyenziswa eSpeyin de kwasekupheleni kweminyaka yee-500, xa uReccared, ukumkani wamaVisigoth, wayishiyayo icawa iArian waza wangumKatolika. Waqokelela waza watshabalalisa zonke iincwadi zobuArian, kunye neBhayibhile iUlfilas. Ngenxa yoko, zange kubekho nto ibhaliweyo yesiGothic eSpeyin.

Isileyiti ekubhalwe kuso iBhayibhile ngesiLatin, ngeminyaka yee-500

Nangona kunjalo, kuloo minyaka iLizwi likaThixo laqhubeka lisanda eSpeyin. Sasikhona isiGothic, kodwa isiLatin sasisathethwa ngabantu abaninzi eSpeyin, ibe kamva kwaphuma kuso ezinye iilwimi zesiLatin ezithethwa eIberia. * Iinguqulelo zokuqala zezi lwimi zesiLatin zaziwa ngokuba zizileyiti zamaVisigoth, kuba zazibhalwe kwizileyiti.  Zabhalwa malunga neminyaka yee-500 ukuya kweyee-600, ibe ezinye zazo ziquka izicatshulwa ezithile zencwadi yeNdumiso neencwadi zeVangeli. Esinye isileyiti sineNdumiso 16 epheleleyo.

Ukubhalwa kweBhayibhile kwizileyiti kubonisa ukuba nabantu nje abaqhelekileyo babefunda baze bazikhuphelele iLizwi likaThixo ngelo xesha. Kukho nento ethi, ootitshala babesebenzisa iBhayibhile ebhalwe kwezi zileyiti ekufundiseni abantwana ukulesa nokubhala. Ezi zileyiti zazingabizi mali ininzi xa zithelekiswa neeBhayibhile ezihonjisiweyo ezazisenziwa ziicawa ngaloo maxesha.

Inxalenye yeBhayibhile ehonjisiweyo eLeón. Zintle zinjalo, ezi Bhayibhile zange zifeze nto ekuncedeni abantu bazi iLizwi likaThixo

Enye yezo Bhayibhile zihonjisiweyo ikwicawa iSan Isidoro eseLeón, eSpeyin. Le Bhayibhile yonyaka ka-960 inamaphepha ayi-516, anobude obuziisentimitha eziyi-47, ububanzi obuziisentimitha eziyi-34 nobunzima obuziikhilogram eziyi-18. Enye ekwiLayibrari yaseVatican yiBhayibhile yaseRipoll eyagqitywa malunga nonyaka ka-1020. Le yenye yezona Bhayibhile zihonjiswe kakhulu kwezakha zenziwa ngelo xesha. Xa kwakubhalwa le Bhayibhile, kusenokwenzeka ukuba imonki yayithatha usuku lonke ukwenza nje unobumba omnye ize ithathe iveki yonke ukubhala umxholo. Zintle zinjalo, ezi Bhayibhile zange zifeze nto ekuncedeni abantu bazi iLizwi likaThixo.

IBHAYIBHILE YESIARABHU

Kwiminyaka yee-700 amaSilamsi ahlasela aza oyisa iSpeyin, kwaza kwangena ulwimi olutsha kwelo lizwe. Kwimimandla eyayilawulwa ngamaSilamsi, isiArabhu sasisetyenziswa ngaphezu kwesiLatin, ngenxa yoko kwafuneka iBhayibhile iguqulelwe ngolu lwimi lutsha.

Iinguqulelo zeBhayibhile yesiArabhu, ingakumbi ezeencwadi zeVangeli, zasasazeka kulo lonke elaseSpeyin. Kwiminyaka yee-700, uJohn, ubhishophu waseSeville, waguqulela iBhayibhile yonke kwisiArabhu. Okubuhlungu kukuba, ezininzi kwezo nguqulelo zalahleka. Enye inguqulelo yeencwadi zeVangeli yesiArabhu eyagqitywa phakathi  kwiminyaka yee-900 igcinwe kwicawa yaseLeón, eSpeyin.

Inguqulelo yesiArabhu yeencwadi zeVangeli, ngeminyaka yee-900

UKUVELA KWENGUQULELO YESPANISH

Emva kweminyaka emininzi, iSpanish okanye isiCastilian, sabalasela eIberia. Olu lwimi lwaluza kunceda abantu abaninzi bazi iLizwi likaThixo. * Inguqulelo yokuqala yolu lwimi yavela kwincwadi iLa Fazienda de Ultra Mar eyabhalwa ngeminyaka yee-1200. Le ncwadi iqulethe ibali lohambo oluya kwaSirayeli, kuquka iincwadi ezabhalwa nguMoses nezinye iziBhalo zesiHebhere, kunye neencwadi zeVangeli, kwaneeleta zeTestamente Entsha.

UKumkani uAlfonso X wakuxhasa ukuguqulelwa kweBhayibhile ngeSpanish

Abefundisi beecawa babengayithandi le nguqulelo. Ngonyaka ka-1234, iBhunga laseTarragona lagqiba ekubeni zonke iincwadi zeBhayibhile zolu lwimi zinikwe abefundisi ukuze zitshiswe. Okuvuyisayo kukuba, esi sigqibo asizange sikuthintele ukuguqulelwa kweBhayibhile. UKumkani uAlfonso X (ngo-1252-1284), ekuthiwa ngowokuqala ukubhala iSpanish, wayekuxhasa ukuguqulelwa kweBhayibhile kolu lwimi lutsha. Iinguqulelo zeSpanish zelo xesha ziquka iBhayibhile ekuthiwa yaguqulelwa ngaphambi kuka-Alfonso, kunye neBhayibhile ka-Alfonso eyenziwa kamva, eyayiyeyona nguqulelo inkulu yeSpanish ngelo xesha.

IBhayibhile yeminyaka yee-1200 yaphambi kwexesha lika-Alfonso (ekhohlo) kunye neBhayibhile ka-Alfonso (ekunene)

Zombini ezo Bhayibhile zanceda ekuphuculeni olu lwimi lutsha, iSpanish. Umphengululi uThomas Montgomery uthi xa ethetha ngeBhayibhile eyaguqulelwa ngaphambi kuka-Alfonso: “Ndimothulel’ umnqwazi umguquleli wale Bhayibhile kuba ichanile yaye inesigama esichubekileyo. . . . Ilula yaye icacile, nto leyo yayifuneka kwiBhayibhile eyayiza kufundwa ngabantu abangasazi kakuhle isiLatin.”

Noko ke, ezo Bhayibhile zokuqala zeSpanish azizange ziguqulelwe ngokusuka kwiilwimi zamandulo, kodwa zaguqulelwa ngokusuka kwiVulgate yesiLatin. Ukususela kwiminyaka yee-1300, abaphengululi abangamaYuda baguqulela iiBhayibhile zeSpanish ngokusuka kwisiHebhere. Ngelo xesha, amaYuda amaninzi eYurophu ayeseSpeyin, ibe kwakulula ngabaguquleli abangamaYuda ukufumana imibhalo-ngqangi yesiHebhere. *

Umzekelo woku yinguqulelo eyaziwa ngokuba yiAlba Bible, eyagqitywa ngeminyaka yee-1400. ULuis de Guzmán, osisidwangube esaziwayo saseSpeyin, wayalela uMfundisi uMoisés Arragel ukuba aguqulele le Bhayibhile ngeSpanish esisulungekileyo. Wachaza izizathu ezibini zokuba afune le nguqulelo intsha. Okokuqala wathi: “IiBhayibhile ezikhoyo ngoku zeelwimi zesiLatin azichananga,” waza okwesibini wathi, “Abantu abanjengathi bafuna zicaciswe iivesi ezinzima.” Isicelo sakhe sibonisa ukuba abantu bexesha lakhe babenomdla wokufunda iBhayibhile ibe babefuna ukuyiqonda kakuhle. Siphinda sibonise ukuba baninzi abantu ababenazo iiBhayibhile eSpeyin ngolwimi lweenkobe.

Basebenza ngokwenene abaguquleli kunye nabakhupheli bangaphambili, kuba benza kwalula  ngabantu baseSpeyin ukufunda iBhayibhile. Kungenxa yoko le nto umbhali-mbali uJuan Orts González wahlomla wathi, “abantu baseSpeyin babeyazi ngakumbi iBhayibhile kunabantu baseJamani nabaseNgilani ngaphambi kwexesha likaLuther.”

“Abantu baseSpeyin babeyazi ngakumbi iBhayibhile kunabantu baseJamani nabaseNgilani ngaphambi kwexesha likaLuther.” —Umbhali-mbali uJuan Orts González

Noko ke, ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yee-1400, ukuncinwa kwamakholwa eSpeyin kwabangela ukuba kuyekwe ukuguqulelwa kweZibhalo ngeelwimi zeenkobe, kulahlwe nezo sele zikho. Kangangexesha elide iBhayibhile yayingasetyenziswa eSpeyin. Oko kwaqhuba kangangamakhulu amathathu eminyaka. Ebudeni belo xesha, abaguquleli abakhaliphileyo abakwamanye amazwe baqhubeka beyiguqulela iBhayibhile baza bayithubelezisa eSpeyin. *

Njengoko sibonile kule ngxelo iphathelele ukuguqulelwa kweBhayibhile eSpeyin, kucacile ukuba abachasi baye bazama ngeendlela ezininzi ukulicim’ igama iLizwi likaThixo. Nakuba kunjalo, abakwazanga kuwatshitshisa amazwi kaSomandla.—INdumiso 83:1; 94:20.

Imigudu yabaphengululi abaninzi ibangele ukuba iBhayibhile isasazeke eSpeyin. Abaguquleli banamhlanje baye balandela ekhondweni labo baphengululi abaguqulela iZibhalo ngesiLatin, isiGothic, isiArabhu neSpanish. Ngenxa yoko, izigidi zabantu abathetha iSpanish namhlanje ziyakwazi ukufunda iLizwi likaThixo ngolwimi lwazo.

^ isiqe. 10 Ezi lwimi ziquka isiCastilian, isiCatalan, isiGalician nesiPhuthukezi.

^ isiqe. 17 Namhlanje bazizigidi eziyi-540 abantu abathetha iSpanish njengolwimi lwabo lweenkobe.

^ isiqe. 20 Funda inqaku elithi “Igama LikaThixo Nephulo Lika-Alfonso de Zamora Lokuvelisa Umbhalo Ochanileyo,” kwiMboniselo kaDisemba 1, 2011.

^ isiqe. 23 Funda inqaku elithi “Idabi LikaCasiodoro de Reina Lokulwela IBhayibhile YeSpanish,” elikwiMboniselo kaJuni 1, 1996.