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IMBONISELO FEBRUWARI 2014

 INQAKU ELINGUMXHOLO

Imfazwe Eyatshintsha Ihlabathi

Imfazwe Eyatshintsha Ihlabathi

Kwiminyaka elikhulu eyadlulayo, izigidi zabafana zashiya amakhaya azo ukuze ziye emfazweni. Umoya wawuphezulu njengoko babeqhutywa kukuthanda amazwe abo. Ngo-1914, elinye ijoni laseMerika labhala lathi, “Ndiba nemincili xa ndicinga ngeentsuku ezizayo.”

Noko ke, kungadlulanga xesha lingako, loo mincili yajika yalulwamvila. Babengazi ukuba loo mikhosi yayiza kujijisana kangangeminyaka eBelgium naseFransi. Abantu ababephila ngelo xesha bayibiza ngokuba ‘yiMfazwe Enkulu.’ Ngoxa thina sisithi yimfazwe yehlabathi yokuqala xa sibhekisela kuyo.

Yaba yeyona mfazwe eye yonzakalisa yaza yabulala abantu abaninzi. Kuqikelelwa ukuba zizigidi eziyi-10 ezafayo ngoxa izigidi eziyi-20 zalahlekelwa ngamalungu omzimba. Iimpazamo ezenziwayo ngelo xesha zaphumela kule mfazwe. Abasemagunyeni baseYurophu bohlulwa kukunqanda loo ngxwaba-ngxwaba yayiphakathi kwaloo mazwe ukuba ingachaphazeli ihlabathi lonke. Okubuhlungu kukuba, loo mfazwe yalimosha ngokupheleleyo ihlabathi. Sisawuva nangoku umahluko owabangelwa yiyo.

 IIMPAZAMO EZENZA ABATHENJWA

Iimpazamo ezenziwa ngelo xesha zaphumela kwimfazwe yehlabathi yokuqala. Xa ithetha ngabalawuli baseYurophu, incwadi ethi The Fall of the Dynasties—The Collapse of the Old Order 1905-1922 ithi abalawuli baseYurophu “babengazi ukuba izigqibo ababezenza zaziya kuphumela kwimfazwe enkulu.”

Kwiiveki nje ezimbalwa kubulewe itshawe laseAustria, amazwe aphetheyo aseYurophu angquzulana kwimfazwe ebengayifuni. Emva kweentsuku nje ezimbalwa le mfazwe iqalile, umlawuli waseJamani wabuzwa: “Konakele phi?” Waphendula wathi, “Nam andazi.”

Iinkokeli ezazisenza izigqibo ngelo xesha zazingazi nowathwethwa ngemiphumo eyayiza kulandela. Amajoni awayesilwa akhawuleza ayiqonda eyona nto yayisenzeka. Afumanisa ukuba abalawuli bawo abazange bazigcine izithembiso zabo, abefundisi bawo bawaqhatha, ibe neenjengele zawo zawangcatsha. Kwenzeka njani oko?

Abalawuli bawo abazange bazigcine izithembiso zabo, abefundisi bawo bawaqhatha, ibe neenjengele zawo zawangcatsha

Abalawuli bathembisa ukuba le mfazwe iza kwenza izinto zibe ngcono ehlabathini. Umlawuli waseJamani wathi: “Silwela uxolo kwilizwe lethu, ilifa lethu kunye nekamva lethu.” UMongameli waseUnited States uWoodrow Wilson waxhasa amazwi athi: “Masilwele idemokhrasi.” Ngoxa eBritani abantu babesithi le “yimfazwe eza kuphelisa zonke iimfazwe.” Bonke babephazama.

Abefundisi babekhokela ekuxhaseni imfazwe. IThe Columbia History of the World ithi: “Nangona babemele ukuba bafundisa abantu ilizwi likaThixo, bakhuthaza abantu ukuba baye emfazweni. Ngaphezu koko, le mfazwe inkulu yabangela intiyo.” Endaweni yokuphelisa loo ntiyo, aba befundisi bayikhwezela. Incwadi ethi A History of Christianity ithi: “Abefundisi babengasakwazi, phofu babengafuni kuthobela imigaqo yobuKristu ngaphezu kokuthanda ilizwe labo. Abaninzi babedibanisa ubuKristu nokuthanda izwe. Amajoni angamaKristu naphuma kwiicawa ezahlukahlukeneyo abongozwa ukuba abulalane, phofu kusithiwa konke oku kwenziwa egameni loMsindisi wawo.”

Iinjengele zazisithi le mfazwe ilula yaye baza koyisa ngokukhawuleza, ukanti zabhidwa yinja ukungavuthwa. Kungekudala, loo mlo wathatha ixesha elide, kungekho lizwe loyisayo. Xa echaza imeko izigidi zamajoni azibona sele ekuyo, omnye umbhali-mbali uthi, “Le inoba yeyona ntlungu engqondweni nasemzimbeni ekwafuneka ukuba ijoni ngalinye liyinyamezele.” Ngaphezu kwaloo lahleko, iinjengele zaqhubeka zinyanzela amajoni ukuba asebenze nzima. Yiyo loo nto amajoni amaninzi aphela sele engafuni kuthobela.

Le mfazwe yehlabathi yokuqala yabachaphazela njani abantu? Omnye umbhalo-mbali ucaphula amazwi elinye igqala lemfazwe lisithi: “Le mfazwe . . . yonakalisa indlela ababecinga nabaziphethe ngayo abantu.” Ngenxa yaloo mfazwe, amagunya amakhulu athi shwaka. Loo mfazwe yaba sisiqalo seminyaka elikhulu edume ngophalazo-gazi olungazange lwabonwa ngaphambili. Emva koko, uqhankqalazo lwaba yinto yomhla nezolo.

Kwakutheni ukuze le mfazwe ilonakalise kangaka ihlabathi? Ngaba yayiyimpazamo nje eyenziwe ngabantu? Iimpendulo zale mibuzo zisichazela ntoni ngekamva?