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IMBONISELO SEPTEMBA 2013

Ngaba Iilwimi Zethu Zavela “KwiNqaba YaseBhabheli”?

Ngaba Iilwimi Zethu Zavela “KwiNqaba YaseBhabheli”?

“UYehova wabachithachitha bathi saa emhlabeni wonke, baza bayeka ukwakha isixeko eso. Kungenxa yoko le nto kwathiwa igama laso yiBhabheli, kuba uYehova waluduba khona apho ulwimi lomhlaba wonke.”Genesis 11:8, 9.

NGABA eso siganeko sichazwe eBhayibhileni senzeka ngokwenene? Ngaba abantu basuka bathetha iilwimi ezahlukeneyo ngaxeshanye, njengoko kusitshiwo? Abanye bayahlekisa ngoko iBhayibhile ikutshoyo ngendlela iilwimi ezabakho zaza zasasazeka ngayo. Omnye umbhali uthi: “Intsomi yeNqaba YaseBhabheli yenye yezona ntsomi zingabhadlanga kwendakha ndaziva.” Kwanomnye urabhi ongumYuda uthi “le yindlela nje elula yokuxelela abantu abangazi nto ngemvelaphi yeentlanga.”

Kutheni abantu bengakholelwa koko kwenzeka eBhabheli? Ngamafutshane nje, kuphikisana neemfundiso zabantu ngemvelaphi yeelwimi. Ngokomzekelo, abanye abaphengululi bathi ezinye iilwimi azizange zibekho ngoko nangoko, kodwa zaphuma ngokuthe ngcembe kulwimi olwaluthethwa ngabantu bonke. Abanye bakholelwa ukuba ezinye iilwimi ezazithethwa ntlandlolo zazivelela, besithi ekuqaleni abantu babehumzela nje de bathetha ulwimi oluvakalayo. Ezi ngcamango kunye nezinye ziye zabangela ukuba abantu abaninzi bavumelane noNjingalwazi W. T. Fitch owabhala kwincwadi yakhe ethi The Evolution of Language wathi: “Asikabi nazo iimpendulo ezicacileyo.”

Yintoni efunyaniswe ngabembi bezinto zakudala nabaphengululi ngendlela ezabakho ngayo iilwimi zabantu? Ngaba oko bakufumanisayo kuyayixhasa indlela ekuthiwa zabakho ngayo? Okanye zixhasa ingxelo yaseBhabheli? Okokuqala, makhe sihlolisise ingxelo yeBhayibhile.

KWENZEKA PHI YAYE NINI?

IBhayibhile ithi ukudutywa kweelwimi nokusasazeka kwabantu kwaqala “kwilizwe laseShinare,” kamva elabizwa ngokuba yiBhabhiloni. (Genesis 11:2) Kwenzeka nini oko? IBhayibhile ithi ngemihla  kaPelege, owazalwa kwiminyaka emalunga neyi-250 ngaphambi koAbraham, “umhlaba [“abemi bomhlaba,” umbhalo osemazantsi weNW eneembekiselo] wawahlukene.” Ngoko kucacile ukuba isiganeko saseBhabheli senzeka kwiminyaka eyi-4 200 eyadlulayo.Genesis 10:25; 11:18-26.

Abanye abaphengululi bacinga ukuba iilwimi ezikhoyo ngoku zivela kulwimi olwaluthethwa ntlandlolo malunga neminyaka eyi-100 000 eyadlulayo. * Ukanti abanye bathi iilwimi ezithethwayo kule mihla zifana nezo zazithethwa kwiminyaka emalunga neyi-6 000 eyadlulayo. Kodwa iingcali zeelwimi ezininzi zinokuzazi njani iilwimi ezingasathethwayo? Imagazini ethi Economist ithi: “Yingxubakaxaka le. Ngokwahlukileyo kwiingcali zebhayoloji, abantu abazaziyo iilwimi abanazo iifosili eziza kubanceda baqonde iilwimi zamandulo.” Le magazini ihlabela mgama isithi uqikelelo lwenye ingcali yeelwimi ekholelwa kwindaleko alunakuthenjwa ngokupheleleyo. Le magazini iqhubeka isithi enye ingcali ifikelele kwizigqibo ezingenakuthenjwa ngenxa yendlela ebale ngayo.

Sekunjalo, “amatye aneelwimi zakudala” akhona. Ngawaphi loo matye, yaye athini ngeelwimi zantlandlolo? IThe New Encyclopædia Britannica ithi: “Amatye aneelwimi zakudala anokufunyanwa ngabantu, awakho ngaphezu kweminyaka emalunga neyi-4 000 okanye eyi-5 000 eyadlulayo.” Abembi bezinto zakudala bawafumana phi la “matye aneelwimi zakudala”? Kumazantsi eMesopotamiya—indawo ekwiShinare yamandulo. * ­Ngenxa yoko, ubungqina obubonakalayo buvumelana nezibakala ezichazwe eBhayibhileni.

IILWIMI EZAHLUKENEYO, IINGCINGA EZAHLUKENEYO

IBhayibhile ithi eBhabheli, uThixo ‘waluduba ulwimi lwabo ukuze bangevani ngentetho.’ (Genesis 11:7) Ngenxa yoko, abakhi “bayeka ukwakha isixeko eso” saseBhabheli baza bachithachitheka, “bathi saa emhlabeni wonke.” (Genesis 11:8, 9) Noko ke, iBhayibhile ayitsho ukuba zonke iilwimi ezithethwa namhlanje zivela kulwimi olunye olwaluthethwa ngaphambi kokuba zidutywe. Kunoko, ichaza ngeelwimi ezabakho ngequbuliso, lwimi ngalunye luchaza indlela eyahlukahlukeneyo abantu abavakalelwa nabacinga ngayo, kwanangeendlela ezahlukahlukene ngayo ezi lwimi.

Ucwecwe lwaseMesopotamiya olwenziwe ngodongwe olunoonobumba abatsobhileyo,ngewaka lesithathu Ngaphambi KukaKristu

Kuthekani ngeelwimi ezahlukeneyo ezikhoyo namhlanje? Ngaba ziyafana okanye zahlukene? Usosayensi uLera Boroditsky, wathi: “Njengoko iingcali ngeelwimi ziphanda nzulu ngeelwimi ezithethwa ehlabathini (ezimalunga neziyi-7 000, zimbalwa kakhulu eziye zazihlola), kuye kwavela izinto ezahlukene ngazo ezininzi.” Nangona iilwimi ezinjengesiCantonese nesiHakka sakumazantsi eTshayina zisondelelene, zahluke ngokupheleleyo kwezinye iilwimi, njengesiCatalan saseNtshona okanye isiValencia saseSpeyin.

Iilwimi zithethwa ngendlela abantu abacinga ngayo nendlela abazichaza ngayo izinto eziphakathi kwabo—umbala, ubukhulu, indawo kunye nendlela abalatha ngayo. Ngokomzekelo, kolunye ulwimi umntu usenokuthi, “Nants’ irhorho  esandleni sakho sasekunene.” Ukanti ngolunye ulwimi usenokuthi, “Nants’ irhorho kwisandla sakho sasemzantsi-ntshona.” Loo ndlela yokuthetha yahluke kangako inokubadida abantu. Kwakungangenkankulu ke ngabakhi baseBhabheli ukuba bangaqhubeka nokwakha.

NGABA BABEHUMZELA OKANYE BABETHETHA ULWIMI OLUPHELELEYO?

Babethetha njani abantu ekuqaleni? IBhayibhile ithi umntu wokuqala, uAdam, wakwazi ukwakha amagama amatsha xa wathiya zonke izilwanyana nezidalwa ezibhabhayo. (Genesis 2:20) UAdam wenza umbongo, echaza indlela avakalelwa ngayo ngenkosikazi yakhe, noEva wachaza imiyalelo ababeyinikwe nguThixo nemiphumo yokungamthobeli. (Genesis 2:23; 3:1-3) Ngoko abantu babekwazi ukuncokola kakuhle ngolwimi lokuqala.

Ukudutywa kweelwimi eBhabheli kwabangela ukuba abantu bangakwazi ukucebisana nokusebenza kunye. Sekunjalo, iilwimi zabo ezintsha zaziphelele njengolwimi lokuqala. Kumakhulu eminyaka kamva, abantu bakha izixeko eziphithizelayo, imikhosi enamandla aza amazwe arhwebelana. (Genesis 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25) Ngaba babeza kukwazi ukuzenza ezi zinto ukuba babengenaso isigama esityebileyo negrama? Ngokutsho kweBhayibhile, ulwimi lokuqala neelwimi ezavela eBhabheli yayingekokuhumzela nje, kodwa yayiziilwimi ezipheleleyo.

Uphando lwakutshanje luyakungqina oku. IThe Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language ithi: “Zonke iintlanga ezikhe zahlolwa, enoba ziphila ubomi obulula kangakanani na, zithetha ulwimi olupheleleyo ngokufanayo nezo kuthiwa ziphucukile.” Ngokufanayo, kwincwadi ethi The Language Instinct, uNjingalwazi uSteven Pinker weKholeji yaseHarvard uthi: “Ayikho into yokuba abantu bakha bahumzela.”

ZIYA KUPHELELA PHI IILWIMI?

Ekubeni sithethe ngemvelaphi yeelwimi, indlela ezahlukene ngayo, kunye nokuphelela kweelwimi zantlandlolo, sinokufikelela kwisigqibo esithini? Abaninzi bafikelela kwisigqibo esithi konke okuthethwa yiBhayibhile ngeBhabheli kwenzeka ngokwenene.

IBhayibhile ithi uYehova uThixo waluduba ulwimi lwabantu baseBhabheli kuba bamvukela. (Genesis 11:4-7) Noko ke, wathembisa ukuba ‘izizwana uya kuzinika ukuba zitshintshele kulwimi olusulungekileyo, ukuze zonke zibize egameni likaYehova, ukuze zimkhonze ngaxhatha linye.’ (Zefaniya 3:9) Olu “lwimi lusungekileyo,” inyaniso yeLizwi likaThixo, lumanyanisa abantu abasehlabathini lonke. Ngoko kusengqiqweni ukuthi kwixa elizayo uThixo uya kumanyanisa uluntu ngokulenza luthethe ulwimi olunye, ephelisa okwa kudutywa kolwimi kwaseBhabheli.

^ isiqe. 8 Iingcamango zabantu ngokuvela kweelwimi zixhasa imbono yokuba abantu baphuma kwizidalwa ezifana nemfene. Zifundele oku kwiphepha 27-29 le ncwadana enemifanekiso yesiNgesi ethi The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking, epapashwe ngamaNgqina kaYehova.

^ isiqe. 9 Abembi bezinto zakudala baye bavumbulula iinqaba zetempile ezibupyramid nezinemigangatho ebonakalayo kummandla waseShinare. IBhayibhile ithi abakhi benqaba yaseBhabheli basebenzisa izitena endaweni yamatye, baza baziqaba ibhitumene endaweni yodaka. (Genesis 11:3, 4) IThe New Encyclopædia Britannica ithi eMesopotamiya amatye “ayenqabile okanye engekho kwaukubakho,” ngoxa ibhitumene yona yayidlal’ abantwana.