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IMBONISELO JUNI 2013

Ubuncwane Obebufihliwe Kangangeenkulungwane

Ubuncwane Obebufihliwe Kangangeenkulungwane

Umphengululi ucinga ukuba uyaphupha. Uqwalasela esi siqwenga sombhalo wamandulo. Indlela esibhalwe ngayo kunye nolwimi esibhalwe ngalo zimenza aqiniseke ukuba siyinxalenye yeyona nguqulelo yeBhayibhile indala yolwimi lwaseGeorgia!

ESI siqwenga sombhalo safunyanwa ngasekupheleni kukaDisemba 1922, xa umphengululi waseGeorgia uIvané Javakhishvili wayephanda ngemvelaphi yoonobumba bolwimi lwesiGeorgia. Wafumana ikopi yeJerusalem Talmud. Njengoko wayeyihlola waphawula ukuba phantsi kombhalo wesiHebhere kwakukho oonobumba besiGeorgia nangona babengasacaci kakuhle. *

Umbhalo owawungaphantsi kwale Talmud wawuyikopi yenxalenye yencwadi yeBhayibhile kaYeremiya yaye wabhalwa ngenkulungwane yesihlanu yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo. Ngaphambi kokuba kufunyanwe lo msongo, eyona misongo yeBhayibhile yesiGeorgia eyayisaziwa yayiyeyenkulungwane yesithoba yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo. Kungekudala emva koko kwafunyanwa nezinye iinxalenye zeencwadi zeBhayibhile ezazibhalwe ngenkulungwane yesihlanu yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo okanye ngaphambili. Khawufan’ ucinge indlela ekufanele ukuba kuchulumancisa ngayo ukufumana iinxalenye zeBhayibhile ezabhalwa kumakhulu ambalwa eminyaka emva kwexesha likaYesu nabapostile bakhe!

Zaziguqulelwe ngubani ezi nxalenye zeBhayibhile? Ngaba zaziguqulelwe ngumntu omnye okanye liqela labaguquleli abazinikeleyo? Okwangoku, ayikafunyanwa impendulo echanileyo. Sekunjalo, kuyacaca ukuba iBhayibhile okanye iinxalenye zayo zazisele ziguqulelwe ngesiGeorgia nangenkulungwane yesine yaye iLizwi likaThixo lalisele likho okanye lifundwa ngabantu baseGeorgia ngolwimi lwabo lweenkobe kwangelo xesha.

Ibali elibonisa indlela ababezazi ngayo iZibhalo abantu baseGeorgia libhalwe kwincwadi ethi The Martyrdom of St. Shushanik the Queen, ekusenokwenzeka ukuba yabhalwa ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yesihlanu. Xa ebalisa ngokubulawa kwale kumkanikazi, umbhali ucaphula iiNdumiso, iiNcwadi zeVangeli kunye nezinye iinxalenye zeBhayibhile. Kwakhona, uthi umyeni kaShushanik uVarsken owayengumlawuli woBukumkani baseGeorgia iKartli, wabulahla “ubuKristu,” waguqukela kunqulo ekuthiwa yiPersian Zoroastrianism waza wanyanzela nomfazi wakhe ukuba azek’ emzekweni, kuba wayefuna ukuzithandisa  kumagosa asePersi. Le ncwadi ithi ukumkanikazi wala ukulahla iinkolelo zakhe yaye wathuthuzelwa ziZibhalo xa wayeza kubulawa.

Kuyabonakala ukuba ukususela kwinkulungwane yesihlanu abantu abazange bayeke ukuguqulela nokukhuphela iBhayibhile ngolwimi lwesiGeorgia. Ukufunyanwa kwemibhalo-ngqangi yeBhayibhile yesiGeorgia kungqina ukuba abakhupheli nabaguquleli basebenza nzima. Makhe sithethe ngezinto ezimbini eziyinxalenye emangalisayo yalo msebenzi—ukuguqulela nokuprinta iBhayibhile.

UKWANDA KOKUGUQULELWA KWEBHAYIBHILE

UGiorgi Mtatsmindeli owayengumshumayeli waseGeorgia ngenkulungwane ye-11 wathi: “Mna Giorgi, ndiye ndasebenza nzima ndiguqulela le ncwadi yeeNdumiso ndiyisusa kwisiGrike ndiyisa kwisiGeorgia.” Kwakutheni ze kufuneke kuguqulelwe iBhayibhile nangona yayisele ikho kangangeenkulungwane inguqulelo yesiGeorgia?

Ngasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane ye-11, yayimbalwa gqitha imibhalo-ngqangi yeBhayibhile yesiGeorgia eyayibhalwe ngesandla neyayisafumaneka. Ezinye iincwadi zeBhayibhile zazilahlekile. Kwakhona, ulwimi lwalutshintshile, ngoko abafundi babengayiqondi ncam imibhalo yamandulo. Nangona bebaninzi abaguquleli abazama ukuguqulela iBhayibhile yesiGeorgia, uGiorgi waba nelona galelo likhulu. Wathelekisa iinguqulelo zesiGeorgia ezazikho ngelo xesha kunye nemibhalo-ngqangi yesiGrike waza waguqulela iinxalenye ezazingekho, ngamanye amaxesha ede aguqulele iincwadi ezipheleleyo. Emini wayesenza imisebenzi yakhe njengomphathi wekhaya loonongendi nabashumayeli. Ebusuku wayeguqulela iBhayibhile.

UEphrem Mtsire owayephila ngexesha elinye noGiorgi wafak’ isandla kumsebenzi omhle owawusele wenziwe nguGiorgi. Waqulunqa incwadi eyayiza kunceda abaguquleli bawenze kakuhle umsebenzi wabo. Yayinamacebiso aluncedo okuguqulela, njengokuguqulela ngokusuka kolona lwimi lokuqala eyabhalwa ngalo loo ncwadi xa kunokwenzeka, nokuqiniseka ukuba kuguqulelwa ngokuchanileyo kodwa ngendlela eqondakala lula. Waphinda wafundisa abaguquleli besiGeorgia ukufakela imibhalo esemazantsi neembekiselo. UEphrem waziguqulela ngokutsha iincwadi eziliqela zeBhayibhile. Umsebenzi kaGiorgi noEphrem wahlab’ ifolo yomsebenzi wokuguqulela owathi wenziwa kamva.

Kwinkulungwane eyalandelayo, ukwenziwa kweencwadi kwathath’ unyawo eGeorgia. Kwasekwa izikolo kwidolophu yaseGelati naseIkalto. Abaphengululi abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba inguqulelo ekuthiwa yiGelati Bible egcinwe kwindawo egcina imibhalo-ngqangi eGeorgia, yinguqulelo entsha yeBhayibhile neyenziwa ngomnye wabafundi bakaGelati okanye uIkalto.

Oku kuguqulelwa kweeBhayibhile kube naliphi ifuthe kubantu baseGeorgia? Ngenkulungwane ye-12 imbongi yaseGeorgia uShota Rustaveli wabhala umbongo ekuthiwa yiVepkhis-tqaosani (Ijoni Elambethe Isikhumba Sehlosi), obusoloko uthandwa kakhulu kangangeenkulungwane kangangokuba ude ubizwe ngokuba yiBhayibhile yesibini yabantu baseGeorgia. Umphengululi waseGeorgia uK. Kekelidze uthi, “ezinye  izimvo zale mbongi ziyavisisana noko kuthethwa zizicatshulwa eziliqela zeBhayibhile,” enoba le mbongi yacaphula okanye ayizange icaphule ngqo eBhayibhileni. Nangona lo mbongo uzibaxa izinto, uthetha kakhulu nangezinto ezifana nobuhlobo bokwenene, ukuba nobubele, ukuhlonipha abafazi nokubathanda ngokusuka entliziyweni abantu ongabaziyo. Ezi kunye nezinye iimfundiso zeBhayibhile zaba nefuthe kwindlela yokucinga yabantu baseGeorgia kangangeenkulungwane yaye ziseyimikhomba-ndlela yokuziphatha kwabo.

INDLU YASEBUKHOSINI IWUTHATHELA KUYO UMSEBENZI WOKUPRINTA IBHAYIBHILE

Ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-17, indlu yobukhosi baseGeorgia yayifuna kuprintwe iBhayibhile. Ngenxa yoko, uKumkani uVakhtang VI wakha indawo yokuprinta kwidolophu yaseTbilisi eyayilikomkhulu. Noko ke, abazange bakwazi ukuyiprinta ngoko nangoko iBhayibhile kuba yayingacacanga kakuhle. Kwakungathi iBhayibhile yesiGeorgia iphinde yafihlwa kwakhona. Kaloku yimibhalo-ngqangi engaphelelanga kuphela yeenxalenye ezithile eyayikho ngelo xesha yaye yayibhalwe ngolwimi lwamandulo olwalungaqondakali kakuhle. Kwathunywa uSulkhan-Saba Orbeliani owayeyingcali yolwimi ukuba afunde aze alungise iBhayibhile yolu lwimi.

UOrbeliani waziphosa nofele kulo msebenzi. Ekubeni wayesazi iilwimi eziliqela kuquka isiGrike nesiLatin, wakwazi ukufunda iincwadi eziliqela ukongezelela kwimibhalo-ngqangi yesiGeorgia eyayikho ngelo xesha. Noko ke, ukufuna kwakhe inyaniso epheleleyo akuzange kuthandwe yiCawa yobuOthodoki baseGeorgia. Abefundisi bamtyhola ngelithi ungcatsha icawa ibe bafaka ukumkani umoya wezikhova ukuze amyekise kumsebenzi wakhe. Ngokutsho kweminye imithombo yaseGeorgia, kwibhunga lecawa elithile abefundisi banyanzela uOrbeliani ukuba atshise iBhayibhile awayechithe iminyaka esebenza kuyo.

Okumangalisayo kukuba ekuphela kwekopi ekhoyo yoMbhalo-ngqangi weMtskheta okwabizwa nangokuba yiSaba’s Bible, inamagqabaza abhalwe ngesandla sikaOrbeliani. Noko ke, abanye abavumi ukuba le yiBhayibhile ababengayifuni abefundisi. Yinkcazelo esekugqibeleni kuphela ekuthiwa yabhalwa nguye ngokuqinisekileyo.

Nangona kwakukho amahla-ndinyuka, amanye amalungu endlu yasebukhosi ayefuna ukuprintwa kweBhayibhile kuqhubeke. Phakathi kowe-1705 nowe-1711 kwaprintwa iinxalenye ezithile zeBhayibhile. Ngenxa yemigudu yeeNkosana zaseGeorgia uBakari noVakhushti, iBhayibhile epheleleyo yada yaprintwa ngowe-1743. Ekugqibeleni yada yafumaneka!

^ isiqe. 3 Mandulo, zazinqabile yaye zibiza imali eninzi izinto zokubhala. Ngoko abantu babedla ngokubhala kumsongo baze bayicime loo nto xa bengasayidingi ukuze bakwazi ukubhala ezinye izinto kuloo msongo. Le nkqubo ibizwa ngegama lesiGrike elithetha ukuthi “ukubhala ucima.”

Funda Okungakumbi

Ngaba UThixo Unalo Igama?

UThixo unezibizo ezininzi, ezinye zazo nguSomandla, uMdali nesithi Nkosi. Kodwa igama likaThixo lisetyenziswa ngaphezu kwezihlandlo eziyi-7 000 eBhayibhileni.

Ngaba INguqulelo Yehlabathi Elitsha Ichanile?

Kutheni iNguqulelo Yehlabathi Elitsha yahluke kangaka kwezinye iiBhayibhile?