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IMBONISELO FEBRUWARI 2013

Yintoni “INcwadi YeVangeli KaYudas”?

Yintoni “INcwadi YeVangeli KaYudas”?

NGOAPRILI 2006, amaphephandaba ehlabathini lonke othusa abantu abaninzi xa achaza ukuba iqela labaphandi liza kukhulula incwadi yamandulo ebizwa ngokuba ‘yiNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas.’ La maphephandaba ayesithi abaphandi bathi le ncwadi iza kuyitshintsha indlela esimjonga ngayo uYudas, umfundi owangcatsha uYesu. Ngokutsho kwawo, uYudas wayeligorha noyena mpostile wayemazi kakuhle uYesu, ibe wacelwa nguYesu ukuba amhlangule ekubulaweni.

Ngaba le yincwadi yokwenene? Yaye ukuba kunjalo, ngaba idiza amahlebo ebekade efihliwe ngoYudas Skariyoti, uYesu Kristu okanye amaKristu enkulungwane yokuqala? Ngaba ifanele iyitshintshe indlela esimqonda ngayo uKristu kunye neemfundiso zakhe?

UKUFUNYANWA ‘KWENCWADI YEVANGELI KAYUDAS’

Abantu abaqinisekanga ukuba le ‘Ncwadi yeVangeli kaYudas’ yafumaneka njani. Kunokuba ifunyanwe ngabembi bezinto zakudala, le ncwadi yasuka yathi gqi kwimarike ethengisa izinto zakudala, ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yee-1970 okanye ngasekuqaleni kweyee-1980. Kubonakala ngathi yabhaqwa eYiputa ngowe-1978 kwingcwaba ekusenokwenzeka ukuba lalisemqolombeni. Yayingomnye wemibhalo emine eyahlukahlukeneyo eyayikwincwadi yakudala eyayibhalwe ngesiCoptic, ulwimi oluvela kolo lwaluthethwa ngamaYiputa amandulo.

Emva kokuba ifudusiwe eYiputa kwimozulu eyomileyo, le ncwadi eyenziwe ngesikhumba yaqalisa ukonakala. Le ncwadi yaboniswa abaphandi abambalwa ngowe-1983; kodwa ke ayizange ithengwe ngenxa yexabiso layo elaliphezulu kakhulu. Ukungagcinwa kwayo kakuhle kwabangela ukuba yonakale ngokukhawuleza. Ngowama-2000, yathengwa ngumthengisi wezinto zakudala waseSwitzerland. Ekugqibeleni, eli nenekazi layinika iqela leengcaphephe ezazivela kumazwe ngamazwe. Ezi ngcaphephe zacelwa yi-Maecenas Foundation for Ancient Art and the National Geographic Society ukuba zenze umsebenzi onzima wokuzama ukudibanisa le ncwadi, ngoku eyayisele yahlukene yaba ziziqwenga ngeziqwenga. Eli qela laphinda  layalelwa ukuba liqikelele ubudala bale ncwadi lize liguqulele noko ikuthethayo.

Iziphumo zovavanyo lwalo msongo zabonisa ukuba kusenokwenzeka ukuba wabhalwa ngenkulungwane yesithathu okanye yesine yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo. Noko ke, abaphandi baqikelela ukuba umbhalo wesi-Coptic ‘weNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas’ wawuguqulelwe ngokusuka kwisiGrike ngaphambidlana. Yabhalwa nini le ‘Ncwadi yeVangeli kaYudas,’ yaye phantsi kwaziphi iimeko?

“INCWADI YEVANGELI KAYUDAS”—IVANGELI YAMAGNOSTIC

‘INcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas’ kuthethwa ngayo okokuqala kwimibhalo kaIrenaeus, umbhali owayephila ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yesibini yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo, nowayezibiza ngokuba ungumKristu. Kwincwadi ebizwa ngokuba yiAgainst Heresies, uIrenaeus ubalisa ngelinye lamaqela awayezichasile iimfundiso zawo. Uthi: “Bathi uYudas umngcatshi wayezazi kakuhle izinto, yaye ekubeni wayeyazi ngaphezu kwabanye inyaniso, nguye yedwa owangcatshayo. Nguye owabangela isiphithiphithi ezulwini nasemhlabeni. Babhala intsomi enjalo abayibiza ngokuba yiNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas.”

‘AsiyoNcwadi yeVangeli eyabhalwa ngemihla kaYudas ngumntu owayemazi kakuhle’

UIrenaeus wayezimisele nangakumbi ukuphikisa iimfundiso eziliqela zamaKristu angama-Gnostic, awayecinga ukuba anolwazi olukhethekileyo. Ubu-Gnostic yinkolelo enamaqela amaninzi awahlukahlukeneyo yaye qela ngalinye liyiqonda lize liyitolike ngendlela eyahlukileyo “inyaniso” yobuKristu. Iinkolelo zama-Gnostic zazisekelwe kwiincwadi zawo ezazixhaphake kakhulu ngenkulungwane yesibini yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo.

IiVangeli zama-Gnostic zazifundisa ukuba abapostile ababalaseleyo babengaziqondi iimfundiso zikaYesu, yaye kukho iimfundiso ezifihlakeleyo zikaYesu ezaziqondwa kuphela ngabambalwa. * Amanye ama-Gnostic ayekholelwa ukuba umhlaba yintolongo. Ngenxa yoko, “uthixo ongumdali” okwiZibhalo zesiHebhere kwakusithiwa nguthixo nje ongenagunya lingako, nowayechasene nabanye oothixo abakhulu. Ayesithi umntu “onolwazi” lokwenene uyayiqonda le “mfihlelo” yaye ufuna ukukhululeka kumzimba wenyama.

“INcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas” isekelwe kwezi nkolelo. Itshayelela ngala mazwi: “Amazwi ayimfihlelo awathethwa nguYesu kuYudas Skariyoti kwiintsuku ezisibhozo, xa kwakusele iintsuku ezintathu ngaphambi kokuba abhiyozele iPasika.”

Ngaba le ncwadi yile yayibhalwe nguIrenaeus ekuqaleni, nekwadlula iinkulungwane kucingwa ukuba ilahlekile? UMarvin Meyer owayekwiqela elahlalutya laza laguqulela le ncwadi, uthi ‘ingcaciso emfutshane kaIrenaeus iyafana nombhalo wesi-Coptic okhoyo ngoku nobizwa ngokuba yiNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas.’

ZIYABETHABETHANA IIMBONO ZABAPHENGULULI—NGOYUDAS EKUTHETHWA NGAYE KULE VANGELI

‘KwiNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas,’ kuthiwa uYesu ubahleka alale ngomqolo abafundi bakhe ngenxa yokungabi nalwazi kwabo. Kodwa kubapostile abali-12, nguYudas kuphela omazi kakuhle uYesu. Ngenxa yoko, uYesu umhlebela “iimfihlelo zobukumkani.”

Indlela iqela lokuqala labaphengululi elayiguqulela ngayo le ncwadi yayityhefwe kakhulu koko kwakuthethwe nguIrenaeus. Kwinguqulelo yabo, uYudas uyathandwa nguYesu kuba ekuphela komfundi owayeza kuziqonda iimfihlelo aze “angene ebukumkanini.” Abapostile abalahlekisiweyo babeza kukhetha omnye umntu ukuba angene ezihlangwini zikaYudas, kodwa ke uYudas wayeza kuba “ngumoya weshumi elinesithathu” kuba uYesu wathi “niya kuthengisa ngendoda endombathisayo.”

Ababhali ababalaseleyo njengoBart Ehrman noElaine Pagels, abangabaphandi abadumileyo ngobuKristu benkulungwane yokuqala kunye nobuGnostic, bakhawuleza bapapasha ezabo izimvo ngale ‘Ncwadi yeVangeli kaYudas,’ yaye izimvo zabo  zazisondele gqitha kwindlela eyayiguqulelwe ngayo le vangeli lelaa qela lokuqala. Noko ke, kungekudala nje emva koko, abaphandi abanjengoApril DeConick noBirger Pearson abazange bayiginye ncam le nto. Babesithi iNational Geographic Society ikhawuleze yayipapasha le ncwadi yamandulo, kuba ifuna ukuba lijelo losasazo lokuqala ukwenjenjalo. Ngaphezu koko, le ncwadi ayizange ihlalutywe ize ifundwe zezinye iingcali njengokuba kulisiko ukwenjenjalo, kuba iqela elaliyiguqulela kwafuneka lisayine isivumelwano sokuba alisayi kuze likuthi pahaha oko ikuquletheyo.

Akukho namnye kubaphandi abahlalutya le ncwadi othi iqulethe imbali echanileyo

UDeConick noPearson benza olwabo uphando, baza bafumanisa ukuba ezinye iinxalenye ezibalulekileyo zeziqwenga zale ncwadi azizange ziguqulelwe ngokuchanileyo ngabaphandi bokuqala. Xa wayedibanisa le ncwadi, uDeConick wafumanisa ukuba uYesu wathi uYudas “yiDemon yeshumi elinesithathu” kungekhona “umoya weshumi elinesithathu.” * Kwakhona, uYesu wamxelela eziqhitsini uYudas ukuba akayi kungena “ebukumkanini.” Kunokuba abe mkhulu kunabanye abafundi, uYesu uthi kuYudas: “Ungoyena ungungantweni ngaphezu kwabo bonke. Kuba wena uza kuthengisa ngendoda endombathisayo.” UDeConick ubona ngathi ‘iNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas’ yincwadi yamandulo yama-Gnostic eyayihlekisa ngabo bonke abapostile. UDeConick noPearson bafikelela kwisigqibo sokuba kule ‘Ncwadi yeVangeli kaYudas,’ uYudas akalogorha.

YINTONI ESINOKUYIFUNDA ‘KWINCWADI YEVANGELI KAYUDAS’?

Enoba bathi uYudas ekuthethwe ngaye kule vangeli ligorha okanye yidemon, akukho namnye kubaphandi abahlalutya le ncwadi othi iqulethe imbali echanileyo. UBart Ehrman uthi: “Le asiyoNcwadi yeVangeli ebhalwe nguYudas okanye umntu othi unguye. . . . Ingazange kananjalo ibhalwe ngemihla awayephila ngayo uYudas, ngumntu owayemazi kakuhle. . . Ngoko ke, le ncwadi ayizi kusinika inkcazelo eyongezelelekileyo ngoko kwenzeka ngemihla kaYesu.”

“INcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas” yincwadi yama-Gnostic eyabhalwa ngenkulungwane yesibini yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo, yaye ekuqaleni yayibhalwe ngesiGrike. Abaphandi abaqinisekanga ukuba le ‘Ncwadi yeVangeli kaYudas’ iyafana kusini na naleyo wayebhekisela kuyo uIrenaeus. Kodwa ke, le ‘Ncwadi yeVangeli kaYudas’ ingqina ukuba ubuKristu bakha baqhekeka kwaza kwavela amahlelo awayefundisa izinto ezingafaniyo. Kunokuba ingqine ukuba iBhayibhile ayithethi nyaniso, “iNcwadi yeVangeli kaYudas” ingqina ukuchana kwezilumkiso zabapostile abanjengoPawulos, owathi kwiZenzo 20:29, 30: “Ndiyazi ukuba emva kokumka kwam. . . phakathi kwenu kuya kusuka amadoda aze athethe izinto ezijijekileyo ukuze abatsale abafundi emva kwawo.”

^ isiqe. 11 Ezi Vangeli zidla ngokuthiywa ngamagama abantu ekuthiwa babeziqonda kakuhle ezona mfundiso zikaYesu, ‘njengeNcwadi yeVangeli kaTomas’ ‘neNcwadi yeVangeli kaMariya Magadala.’ Ezi ncwadi zamandulo zingama-30 xa zizonke.

^ isiqe. 18 Abaphandi abathi uYudas yidemon kule ncwadi—eyayimqonda ngaphezu kwabanye abapostile uYesu—bathi oku kuyafana nendlela iidemon ekuthethwe ngazo kwiiNcwadi zeVangeli eziseBhayibhileni ezazimazi kakuhle ngayo uYesu.—Marko 3:11; 5:7.