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IMBONISELO DISEMBA 2012

Ukusetyenziswa Kwezithambiso Ngamaxesha Okubhalwa KweBhayibhile

Ukusetyenziswa Kwezithambiso Ngamaxesha Okubhalwa KweBhayibhile

Ukuzilungisa kwamabhinqa ngamaxesha okubhalwa kweBhayibhile kwakuquka ukusetyenziswa komtsheyiso wamehlo, owokubhukuza ubuso nezithambiso zolusu

Lakugqiba ukuhlamba ibhinqa lithambisa ioli enevumba elimnandi kulusu lwalo oluthambileyo. Emva koko livula ibhokisi yalo ehonjisiweyo eneebhotile ezincinane neengqayi yaye ezinye zenziwe ngeglasi, uphondo lwendlovu nangelitye. Ezo bhotilana zineeoli neziqholo ezinevumba elimnandi njengelebalsam, icardamom, elesinamon, elemore, elentlaka yokuqhumisa, nelobusi.

Kulo bhokisi, ibhinqa likhupha amacetshana nezityana eliza kuzisebenzisa ukuze lixube ezo zithambiso liza kuzibhukuza ngazo ngolo suku. Lizijonge esipilini, ngocoselelo liziqaba ngalo mxube.

KUYABONAKALA ukuba akungoku amabhinqa aba nomdla wokuzilungisa. Imizobo yamandulo, imifanekiso ekroliweyo, nemifanekiso eyenziwe ngamatye, iyonke nje ibonisa ukuba ukubhukuza kwakuxhaphakile phakathi kwabantu baseMesopotamiya naseYiputa. Imifanekiso yamabhinqa aseYiputa anamehlo alungiswe kakuhle amilise okom-amangile yayithandwa gqitha.

Kuthekani ngamaSirayeli? Ngaba amabhinqa amandulo akwaSirayeli ayezilungisa? Ukuba kunjalo, ayesebenzisa ntoni? Kakade ke, ayikho imizobo okanye imifanekiso yakwaSirayeli esinokungqina ngayo. Kodwa kukho iingxelo eziqinisekileyo kunye nezinto eziye zavunjululwa kwizixeko ekuthethwa ngazo eBhayibhileni ezinokusinceda sazi enoba zazisetyenziswa izithambiso ngamaxesha okubhalwa kwayo.

Izixhobo Ezazisetyenziswa

Izityana zokuxubela izithambiso, kwaSirayeli

Kuye kwembiwa izinto ezininzi kwaSirayeli ezinxulunyaniswa nezithambiso neziqhola. Kwafunyanwa izitya ezenziwe ngelitye ekukholelwa ukuba kwakugutywa kuze kuxutyelwe kuzo izinto zokutsheyisa, neebhotile zeziqholo ezazimilise okweminqathe, iqokobhe lealabhasta, nezipili ezincinane ezenziwe ngobhedu olukhazimlisiweyo. Kukwakho nohlobo oluthile lwecephe elenziwe ngophondo lwendlovu elinomqheba okrolwe amagqabi omthi wesundu laza kwelinye icala lanobuso bebhinqa obujikelezwe ngamahobe.

Kubonakala ngathi amaqokobhe ahonjisiweyo yayingawona ayesetyenziswa ukugcina izithambiso. Kwakhona, eYiputa nakwimimandla yaseKanana kuye kwafunyanwa amacephe amancinane enziwe ngophondo lwendlovu nangomthi nawayesetyenziswa xa ibhinqa liza kuzilungisa ukuze likhe izithambiso nekwakukrolwe kuwo amabhinqa adadayo neminye imikrolo. Konke oku kubonisa ukuba amabhinqa aloo maxesha ayezisebenzisa izithambiso.

Ayewatsheyisa Ngantoni Amehlo?

EBhayibhileni, omnye weentombi zikaYobhi inegama “elinguKeren-hapuki,” ngesiHebhere lithetha “Iqhaga Lomtsheyiso Omnyama (Wamehlo),” eli qhaga okanye ibhokisi yayigcina umtsheyiso wamehlo. (Yobhi 42:14) Elo gama lisenokuba lalibhekisela kubuhle bayo kodwa kwangaxeshanye lisibonisa ukuba izithambiso zokutsheyisa zazisetyenziswa kwakudala.

Okuphawulekayo kukuba, iBhayibhile inxulumanisa ukutsheyiswa kwamehlo nabafazi ababedume  kakubi njengoKumkanikazi uIzebhele neYerusalem engathembekanga, nababoniswa njengonoongogo kwisiprofeto sikaYeremiya nesikaHezekile. (2 Kumkani 9:30; Yeremiya 4:30; Hezekile 23:40) Xa ujonga ubuninzi bamaqhaga enziwe ngeglasi okanye ngelitye awayesetyenziselwa ukugcina izithambiso aye avunjululwa, sibona ukuba inkoliso yamabhinqa oSirayeli owexukileyo—ngokukodwa lawo angawasebukhosini—ayethanda ukuzihombisa ngokuwufaka kakhulu umtsheyiso wamehlo nezinye izithambiso.

I-Oli Eqholiweyo Yokwenza Umsebenzi Ongcwele Okanye Eqhelekileyo

Ukuveliswa nokusetyenziswa kweoli yomnquma eqholiweyo kunembali ende kuSirayeli wamandulo. Incwadi yeBhayibhile iEksodus iqulethe izithako ezazixutywa xa kusenziwa ioli eqholiweyo nengcwele eyayisetyenziswa ngababingeleli etempileni. Yayingumxube wesinamon, owemore nezinye izityalo ezinevumba elimnandi. (Eksodus 30:22-25) EYerusalem abembi bezinto zakudala baye bafumana indawo ekwakusenziwa kuyo iziqholo neziqhumiso ezazisetyenziswa etempileni ngenkulungwane yokuqala. Zininzi iingxelo zeBhayibhile  ezithetha ngeoli eqholiweyo, neyayisetyenziselwa inkonzo engcwele nakubomi bemihla ngemihla.—2 Kronike 16:14; Luka 7:37-46; 23:56.

Ingqayi yokugcina isiqholo, kwaSirayeli

Ekubeni amanzi ayenqabile kweminye imimandla yelo lizwe, iioli eziqholiweyo zazisetyenziselwa ukucoca. Kwakhona yayingasetyenziselwa nje ukukhusela ulusu kwimozulu eshushu neyomileyo kuphela, kodwa nokuzenza ube mhle. (Rute 3:3; 2 Samuweli 12:20) Intombazana yomYuda uEstere, ngaphambi kokuba isiwe kukumkani uAhaswerosi yayimane ithanjiswa ngeoli kangangeenyanga ezili-12 ukuze ibe ntle—kwezintandathu yathanjiswa ngeoli yemore yaye kwezinye ezintandathu ngeoli yebhalsam.—Estere 2:12.

Iziqholo zazinexabiso ngokufanayo negolide nesilivere. Xa uKumkanikazi waseShebha wathabatha uhambo lokuya kubona uKumkani uSolomon, phakathi kwezipho ezixabisekileyo awayeziphethe kwakukho igolide, amatye axabisekileyo neoli yebhalsam. (1 Kumkani 10:2, 10) Xa uKumkani uHezekiya wayetyelelwe ngabathunywa bokumkani waseBhabhiloni, ‘ioli yebhalsam neoli elungileyo’ zaziphakathi kwezinto awazibonisa ezo ndwendwe ezaziquka isilivere negolide nendawo yakhe yokugcina izikrweqe.—Isaya 39:1, 2.

Yayincinane ioli eyayinokufumaneka kwiintyantyambo ezahlukahlukeneyo, kwiziqhamo, kumagqabi, kwiirasentyisi nakumaxolo omthi. IBhayibhile ikhankanya uninzi lwezityalo ezazinevumba elimnandi ezinjengekhala, ibhalsam, intlaka yebhideliyu, ikalamo, ikasiya, isinamon, intlak’ emhlophe, imore, isafroni nenadusi. Ezinye zazo zazizezomthonyama yaye zazikhula kumathafa aseYordan. Kanti ezinye zazivela eIndiya, eMzantsi Arabhiya nakwezinye iindawo.

Okumangalisayo Ngeoli Yebhalsam

Ioli yebhalsam kuthethwa ngayo eBhayibhileni kwiingxelo ezingoKumkanikazi uEstere, ukumkanikazi waseShebha noKumkani uHezekiya njengoko siye sabona kwiziqendu ezingasentla. Ngo-1988 kwafunyanwa inkonkxa encinci yeoli kumqolomba okufutshane neQumran, kunxweme olungasentshona loLwandle Olufileyo. Oko kwabangela kwabakho iintetho. Ngaba le yayiyisampuli yokugqibela yeoli yebhalsam yodumo? Abaphandi abakafumani mpendulo yanelisayo. Kude kube namhlanje, abalimi bazama ukuphinda bakhulise oko kwakhe kwaziwa njengegcume yebhalsam.

Iiqokobhe lokugcina izithambiso elenziwe ngophondo lwendlovu, kwaSirayeli

Ubungqina bubonisa ukuba ioli yebhalsam ekuthethwa ngayo eBhayibhileni yayilinywa kufutshane nase-En-gedi. Abembi bezinto zakudala baye bafumana iingqayi, izinyithi ezahlukahlukeneyo nezinye izinto ezenziwe ngethambo ezazikho ukususela ngenkulungwane yesithandathu Ngaphambi Kwexesha Eliqhelekileyo. Ezi zinto ziyafana nezo zisetyenziswayo kwiindawo ekwenziwa kuzo iziqholo. Abaphengululi abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba isihlahla somthi webhalsam sasivela eArabhiya okanye eAfrika. Yincindi yeso sihlahla eyayivelisa ivumba elimnandi. Yayixabiseke kakhulu kangangokuba iindlela zokuyilima neyokwenza ngayo iziqholo zazigcinwa ziyimfihlo.

Ibhalsam yayikwasetyenziswa njengesixhobo sokugaya kwezopolitiko. Ngokomzekelo umbhali-mbali uJosephus uthi, xa uMark Antony wafumana igcume lezi zityalo zixabisekileyo walinika uKumkanikazi waseYiputa uCleopatra njengesipho. Ukanti umbhali-mbali waseRoma uPliny ukhankanya Imfazwe yamaYuda ngenkulungwane yokuqala Kwixesha Eliqhelekileyo, apho amajoni amaYuda azama ukutshabalalisa yonke nje into esisityalo sebhalsam ukwenzela ukuba iRoma ingabalawuli.

Ngokuphuma kwiimbekiselo zeBhayibhile nakwiingxelo nakwizinto zakudala eziye zavunjululwa, siyakwazi ukubona indlela abantu bamaxesha okubhalwa kweBhayibhile ebabezisebenzisa ngayo izithambiso. Kunokuba iBhayibhile ikwalele ukuzisebenzisa ezi zinto, ikhuthaza ukuba zisetyenziswe ngendlela ebonisa ukuthozama nangengqondo ephilileyo. (1 Timoti 2:9) Umpostile uPetros wabonisa oko likuko ‘ixabiso elikhulu emehlweni kaThixo,’ ‘ngumoya ozolileyo nowobulali.’ Ekubeni ifashoni itshintsha mihla le, ngokuqinisekileyo esi sisiluleko esihle nesisengqiqweni esiya kumabhinqa angamaKristu, amadala namancinane.—1 Petros 3:3, 4.