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IMBONISELO 2010-04-01

Ngaba IBhayibhile Isichazela Yonke Inyaniso NgoYesu?

Ngaba IBhayibhile Isichazela Yonke Inyaniso NgoYesu?

Ngaba uYesu akazange afele eGolgotha njengoko iBhayibhile isitsho? Ngaba watshata noMariya waseMagadala baza banabantwana? Okanye ngaba wayeyindoda eyayiphila ubomi obungaqondakaliyo neyayizibandeza ulonwabo? Ngaba wafundisa izinto ezahluke ngokupheleleyo kwezo sizifunda eBhayibhileni?

UKUKROKRA okunjalo kuye kwanda kutshanje yaye ubukhulu becala bubangelwa ziimovie naziincwadi zamabali. Ukongezelela kwezi movie neencwadi zamabali kuye kwakho nezinye iincwadi ezininzi ezithetha ngemibhalo engaphefumlelwanga yenkulungwane yesibini neyesithathu yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo ethi ichaza inyaniso ngoYesu, nyaniso leyo engekhoyo kwiincwadi zeVangeli. Ngaba ezo ncwadi zinyanisile? Ngaba sinokuqiniseka ukuba iBhayibhile isichazela yonke inyaniso ngoYesu?

Kukho izinto ezintathu ezinokusinceda siyiphendule le mibuzo. Okokuqala, kufuneka  sazi inkcazelo ebalulekileyo ngamadoda awabhala iincwadi zeVangeli kunye nexesha awazibhala ngalo; okwesibini, kufuneka sazi ukuba ngubani owakhetha iincwadi ezaziza kufakwa kuluhlu lwencwadi eziphefumlelweyo nokuba zazikhethwa njani; okwesithathu, kufuneka sazi imvelaphi yeencwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga nokuba zahluke njani kwiincwadi eziphefumlelweyo. *

Zabhalwa Nini Yaye Ngubani IZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike?

Eminye imithombo ithi incwadi yeVangeli kaMateyu yabhalwa emva kweminyaka emithathu efile uKristu okanye malunga nowama-41 C.E. Abaphengululi abaninzi bathi yabhalwa mva kodwa ke kuyavunyelwana ukuba zonke iZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike zabhalwa ngenkulungwane yokuqala yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo.

Abantu ababezibonele ngokwabo ubomi, ukufa nokuvuka kukaYesu babesaphila ngelo xesha; babenokuzingqina izinto ezibhalwe kwiincwadi zeVangeli. Kwakhona babenokuyiphikisa lula nantoni na engachananga. UNjingalwazi F. F. Bruce uthi: “Enye yezona zinto ezaziyenza ibe namandla imfundiso yabapostile yayikukuba babesaziwa kakuhle ukuba babengoobani; abapostile babengapheleli nje ekuthini, ‘Singamangqina ezi zinto,’ kodwa babephinda bathi ‘Njengoko nani nisazi’ (IZenzo 2:22).”

Umpostile uPawulos wenza imimangaliso wada wavusa nomntu ofileyo, enikela ubungqina bokuba yena kunye nemibhalo yakhe babexhaswa ngumoya kaThixo

Ngoobani ababhala iZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike? Abanye babo babengabanye babapostile bakaYesu abali-12. Bona, kunye nabanye ababhali beBhayibhile abanjengoYakobi, uYude mhlawumbi noMarko babekho xa kwakusekwa ibandla lamaKristu ngePentekoste yowama-33 C.E. Bonke aba babhali kuquka uPawulos babesebenza ngokusondeleyo nequmrhu elilawulayo lebandla lokuqala lamaKristu, elaliquka abapostile namadoda amakhulu aseYerusalem.—IZenzo 15:2, 6, 12-14, 22; Galati 2:7-10.

UYesu wathuma abalandeli bakhe ukuba baqhubeke besenza umsebenzi wokushumayela kunye nokufundisa awayewuqalile. (Mateyu 28:19, 20) Wada wathi: “Lowo uniphulaphulayo uphulaphula nam.” (Luka 10:16) Kwakhona wabathembisa ukuba umoya oyingcwele kaThixo wawuza kubenza babe namandla okwenza loo msebenzi. Ngoko ke, iincwadi ezazibhalwe ngabapostile okanye ngabanye abantu ababesebenza nabo zasisamkelwa lula njengezinegunya ngamaKristu okuqala, kuba kwakucacile ukuba loo madoda ayesikelelwa ngumoya oyingcwele kaThixo.

Abanye ababhali beBhayibhile babekungqina ukuba negunya nokuphefumlelwa kwabanye. Ngokomzekelo, umpostile uPetros wathetha ngeencwadi zikaPawulos waza wazikhankanya phakathi ‘kwezinye iZibhalo.’ (2 Petros 3:15, 16) Naye uPawulos wayevuma ukuba abapostile nabanye abaprofeti abangamaKristu babephefumlelwe nguThixo.—Efese 3:5.

Ngoko ke kukho ubungqina obeyiselayo bokuba iincwadi zeVangeli zinokuthenjwa yaye zichanile. Ezi ncwadi azizontsomi. Ziyimbali ebhalwe ngocoselelo nesekelwe kubungqina bokuzibonela obabhalwa ngamadoda awayephefumlelwe ngomoya oyingcwele kaThixo.

Ngubani Owakhetha Iincwadi Ezaziza Kungena Kuluhlu Lweencwadi Eziphefumlelweyo?

Abanye ababhali bathi uluhlu lweZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike lwakhethwa kwiinkulungwane kamva yicawa eyayinegunya neyayikhokelwa nguMlawuli uConstantine. Noko ke ubungqina abubonisi loo nto.

Ngokomzekelo, uNjingalwazi weMbali yeCawa uOskar Skarsaune wathi: “Asiyocawa okanye umntu omnye owayegqiba ngemibhalo eyayiza kuqukwa neyayingazukuqukwa kwiTestamente Entsha. . . Yayisaziwa ngokubanzi indlela eyayikhethwa ngayo le mibhalo: Imibhalo yenkulungwane yokuqala  yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo eyayibhalwe ngabapostile okanye abantu ababesebenza nabo yayigqalwa njengenokuthenjwa. Eminye imibhalo njengeeleta okanye iivangeli ezabhalwa kamva ayizange iqukwe. . . Yonke le nkqubo yagqitywa ngaphambi kwexesha likaConstantine nangaphambi kokuba icawa yakhe isekwe. ITestamente Entsha ayizange iveliswe yicawa kaConstantine kodwa ke yaveliswa yicawa yamaKristu awayebulawa ngenxa yokholo lwawo.”

Unjingalwazi Ken Berding ophanda ngeZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike uthi zaqukwa ngale ndlela iincwadi eBhayibhileni: “Icawa ayizange izikhethe ngokwayo iincwadi ezaziza kuqukwa eBhayibhileni; singathi nje kwafuneka yona yamkele iincwadi ezazisamkelwa ngamaKristu njengeLizwi likaThixo elinegunya.”

Noko ke, ngaba yayingaloo maKristu enkulungwane yokuqala kuphela awakhetha iincwadi ezazifanele ziqukwe eBhayibhileni? IBhayibhile ithi kukho nto ithile ebaluleke nakakhulu nenamandla eyayisebenza.

IBhayibhile ithi esinye sezipho zemimangaliso zomoya ezanikwa ibandla lamaKristu lokuqala ‘yayikukuqonda amazwi aphefumlelweyo.’ (1 Korinte 12:4, 10) Ngoko amanye aloo maKristu anikwa amandla okukwazi ukuwubona umahluko phakathi kwamazwi awayephefumlelwe nguThixo nawayengaphefumlelwanga nguye. Ngoko ke, amaKristu namhlanje afanele aqiniseke ukuba iZibhalo eziqukwe eBhayibhileni zazigqalwa njengeziphefumlelweyo.

Kucacile ke ngoko ukuba iincwadi ezaziza kuqukwa eBhayibhileni zakhethwa kwakude kudala ngokhokelo lomoya oyingcwele. Ukususela ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yesibini yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo, abanye ababhali bathetha ngeencwadi ezaba yinxalenye yeBhayibhile. Noko ke, aba babhali abazange bazikhethe ezi ncwadi; banikela ubungqina ngento eyayisele yamkelwe nguThixo esebenzisa abameli bakhe ababesalathiswa ngumoya wakhe.

Nemibhalo-ngqangi yamandulo inobungqina obungenakuphikiswa obuxhasa ukuchana kweencwadi ezikwiBhayibhile esiyisebenzisayo. Kukho imibhalo-ngqangi yeZibhalo zesiGrike ebhalwe ngesiGrike samandulo engaphezu kwama-5 000, kuquka neminye yenkulungwane yesibini neyesithathu. Yayiyile mibhalo kungekhona iincwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga, eyayisamkelwa njengenegunya ekuqaleni kweenkulungwane zeXesha Eliqhelekileyo neyakhutshelwayo yaza yasasazwa.

Noko ke, obona bungqina bokuphefumlelwa kwezi ncwadi bufumaneka kuzo. Iincwadi eziphefumlelweyo ziyavumelana ‘namazwi  aphilileyo’ abhalwe kuyo yonke iBhayibhile. (2 Timoti 1:13) Zikhuthaza abantu abazifundayo ukuba bamthande, bamnqule baze bamsebenzele uYehova yaye zibalumkisa nxamnye neenkolelo, ukusebenzelana needemon kunye nokunqula ezinye izidalwa. Zichanile xa zithetha ngembali yaye zineziprofeto eziyinyaniso. Zikhuthaza abafundi ukuba bathande abanye abantu. Zahluke ngezo mpawu ke iZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike. Ngaba imibhalo engaphefumlelwanga inazo ezi mpawu?

Zahluke Njani Iincwadi Ezingaphefumlelwanga?

Iincwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga zahluke ngokupheleleyo kweziphefumlelweyo. Zona ezi ncwadi zabhalwa malunga nasembindini wenkulungwane yesibini, emva kweminyaka emininzi sele zibhaliwe eziphefumlelweyo. Indlela ezimchaza ngayo uYesu kunye nobuKristu iyaphikisana nento ethethwa ziZibhalo eziphefumlelweyo.

Ngokomzekelo, iVangeli kaTomas engaphefumlelwanga ithi uYesu wathetha amazwi athile angaqondakaliyo, njengokuthi wayeza kujika uMariya abe yindoda ukuze akwazi ukungena kuBukumkani bamazulu. Kanti yona i-Infancy Gospel of Thomas ithi ebuntwaneni bakhe uYesu wayekhohlakele yaye wabulala omnye umntwana. Iincwadi zeZenzo zikaPawulos noPetros ezingaphefumlelwanga zithi abantu bafanele bangabelani ngesondo yaye zide zithi abapostile babekhuthaza abafazi ukuba bahlukane namadoda abo. Kwelinye icala, iVangeli kaYudas ithi uYesu wabahleka abafundi bakhe xa babethandazela ukutya kuThixo. Ezo zinto ziyaphikisana neemfundiso ezikwiincwadi eziphefumlelweyo.—Marko 14:22; 1 Korinte 7:3-5; Galati 3:28; Hebhere 7:26.

Imibhalo emininzi engaphefumlelwanga ineembono zamaGnostiki awayesithi uMdali uYehova, nguThixo ongalunganga. Kwakhona ayekholelwa ukuba uvuko aluyonto yokoqobo, yonke into ebonakalayo ingendawo yaye uSathana ngumsunguli womtshato nokuzala.

Iincwadi ezininzi ezingaphefumlelwanga kuthiwa zabhalwa ngabantu abaseBhayibhileni kodwa ke bubuxoki loo nto. Ngaba kwenziwa iyelenqe lokuba zikhutshwe eBhayibhileni ezi ncwadi? Enye ingcali ekuthiwa nguM.R.James, yathi: “Kucacile ukuba akukho mntu wakhupha ezi ncwadi kwiTestamente Entsha: zona zazikhupha ngokwazo.”

Ababhali BeBhayibhile Balumkisa Ngowexuko Olwaluza Kwenzeka

Iincwadi eziphefumlelweyo zinezilumkiso ezininzi eziphathelele uwexuko olwaluza konakalisa ibandla lamaKristu. Phofu ke olo wexuko lwalusele luqalisile ngenkulungwane yokuqala kodwa ke abapostile baluthintela ukuba lunganwenwi. (IZenzo 20:30; 2 Tesalonika 2:3, 6, 7; 1 Timoti 4:1-3; 2 Petros 2:1; 1 Yohane 2:18, 19; 4:1-3) Izilumkiso ezinjalo zisenza sibone ukuba kukho imibhalo ethile eyayiphikisa iimfundiso zikaYesu eyavela emva kokufa kwabapostile.

Ewe kona, loo mibhalo inokubonakala imidala yaye ihloniphekile kwabanye abaphengululi nababhali-mbali. Kodwa ke makhe sithi: Ubuya kuthini ukuba abaphengululi bebenokuqokelela iimibhalo yezinto ezingeyonyani ezishicilelwe namhlanje, mhlawumbi bezithatha kumaphephancwadi amahlelo onqulo baze bazigcine kakuhle? Ngaba loo mibhalo ibiza kuba yinyani ize ithembeke emva kokuba kudlule ixesha elithile ikho? Ngaba ubuxoki nemfitshi-mfitshi ebhalwe kuyo ibiza kuba yinyani emva kokuba kudlule iminyaka eli-1 700 ngenxa nje yokuba loo mibhalo imidala?

Akunjalo! Kunjalo ke nangento yokuba kuthiwe uYesu watshata uMariya waseMagadala nezinye izinto ezibubuxoki ezibhalwe kwiincwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga. Kutheni uthemba iincwadi ezingathembekanga ngolo hlobo ekubeni zikho ezinokuthenjwa? Yonke into uThixo afuna siyazi ngoNyana wakhe iseBhayibhileni yaye sinokuyithemba.

^ isiqe. 4 Kukho iincwadi ezingama-66 ezamkelwa njengeziphefumlelweyo neziyinxalenye ebalulekileyo yeLizwi likaThixo.