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IMBONISELO 2010-03-01

Isizathu Sokuba Unokuzithemba Iincwadi ZeVangeli

Isizathu Sokuba Unokuzithemba Iincwadi ZeVangeli

“Ziye zaphumelela ngendlela engathethekiyo. Kuye kwenziwa iifilim ezisekelwe kuzo, ezibiza izigidi . . . neencwadi eziye zathengwa kakhulu . . . Amahlelo amaKristu aye azamkela. Ziye zangoonozala beenkonzo nezinye iimfundiso.”—SUPER INTERESSANTE, IPHEPHANCWADI LASEBRAZIL.

LALITHETHA ngantoni eli phephancwadi? Laligqabaza ngomdla omkhulu owawubangelwa yingqokelela yeencwadi ekwakusithiwa zezevangeli, iileta neziprofeto zentshabalalo ezafunyanwa embindini wenkulungwane yama-20 eNag Hammadi nakwezinye iindawo zaseYiputa. La maxwebhu namanye anjengawo ngokuqhelekileyo abizwa ngokuba ziiGnostiki okanye iiApocryphal. *

Ngaba Kwakukho Iyelenqe?

Kubonakala ukuba ezi ncwadi zingaphefumlelwanga ziye zathandwa luninzi lwabantu abangayithembiyo iBhayibhile neenkonzo ekudala zikho. Ezi ncwadi ziye zayiphembelela kakhulu indlela abantu abaninzi abazijonga ngayo iimfundiso zikaYesu Kristu kunye nobuKristu. Elinye iphephancwadi lathi: “Incwadi yeVangeli kaTomas nezinye iincwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga ziyathandwa liqela labantu eliya lisanda kweli xesha lethu: abantu abanomdla kwizinto zobuthixo kodwa abangaluthembiyo unqulo.” EBrazil kuye kwafunyaniswa ukuba “kukho ubuncinane amaqela angama-30 aneenkolelo ezisekelwe kwezi ncwadi zingaphefumlelwanga.”

Ukufunyanwa kwala maxwebhu kuye kwayenza yathandwa ingcamango yokuba ngenkulungwane yesine yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo, iCawa yamaKatolika yazama ukuyifihla eyona nyaniso ngoYesu, kwaza kwenziwa amalinge okuba zingapapashwa ezinye iingxelo zobomi bakhe ezi kwezi ncwadi zingaphefumlelwanga nokuba iincwadi zeVangeli ezine ezikwiBhayibhile yethu ziye zatshintshwa. UElain Pagels ongunjingalwazi wonqulo uyibeka ngale ndlela le ngcamango: “Ngoku kuyacaca ukuba  inkolelo esiyibiza ngokuba bubuKristu kunye nezithethe zayo zithathwe kumabali ambalwa akhethwe phakathi kwamaninzi.”

Ngokoluvo lwabaphengululi abanjengoPagels, asiyoBhayibhile kuphela umthombo wonqulo lwamaKristu; ikho neminye, njengeencwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga. Ngokomzekelo, inkqubo kamabonwakude ebizwa ngokuba yiBible Mysteries, eyayinomxholo othi “Oyena Mariya WaseMagadala” yathi iincwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga zithi uMariya waseMagadala “wayengumfundisi nenkokeli yabanye abafundi. Wayengengomfundi nje kuphela kodwa wayengumpostile wabanye abapostile.” Xa ethetha ngendima ekuthiwa yekaMariya waseMagadala, uJuan Arias wathi kwiphephandaba laseBrazil ekuthiwa O Estado de S. Paulo: “Yonke into esiyifunda namhlanje isenza sikholelwe ukuba amanina ayetshotsha phambili kubuKristu bokuqala obasekwa nguYesu, iicawa zazingenela emizini yawo yaye ayengabefundisi noobhishopu.”

Abantu abaninzi bazithanda ngaphezu kweBhayibhile ezi ncwadi zingaphefumlelwanga. Noko ke, loo nto iphakamisa imibuzo ebalulekileyo: Ngaba ezi ncwadi zingaphefumlelwanga zingowona mthombo wonqulo lobuKristu? Xa ziphikisana neBhayibhile, sifanele sise yiphi komkhulu—iBhayibhile okanye zona? Ngaba ngokwenene ngenkulungwane yesine kwenziwa ilinge lokuzibhangisa ezi ncwadi kwaza kwakhutshwa inkcazelo ebalulekileyo ngoYesu, uMariya waseMagadala kunye nabanye kwiincwadi zeVangeli? Ukuze siyiphendule le mibuzo makhe sihlole enye yeencwadi zeVangeli ezine, iVangeli kaYohane.

Ubungqina Obukwincwadi YeVangeli KaYohane

Isiqwengana esibalulekileyo seVangeli kaYohane safumaneka eYiputa ngenkulungwane yama-20 yaye ngoku sibizwa ngokuba yiPapyrus Rylands 457 (P52). Sinengxelo kaYohane 18:31-33, 37, 38 ngokweBhayibhile zale mihla kwaye sigcinwe kwiJohn Rylands Library eseManchester, eNgilani. Esi sesona siqwengana sidala sombhalo-ngqangi weZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike. Abaphengululi abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba sabhalwa malunga nowama-125 C.E., emva kweminyaka emalunga nama-25 emva kokufa kukaYohane. Eyona nto ingumnqa kukuba iivesi zesi siqwenga ziphantse zivumelane ngokupheleleyo nezemibhalo-ngqangi yamva. Isibakala sokuba umbhalo-ngqangi kaYohane omdala ngolo hlobo ube wawusele useYiputa ngelo xesha, apho wafunyanwa khona, sixhasa uluvo lokuba ivangeli kaYohane yabhalwa ngenkulungwane yokuqala nguYohane ngokwakhe, njengoko isitsho neBhayibhile. Ngoko ke, incwadi kaYohane yabhalwa ngumntu owazibonela ngokwakhe izinto ezibhalwe kuyo.

Kwelinye icala, zonke ezi ncwadi zingaphefumlelwanga zabhalwa ukususela ngenkulungwane yesibini ukubheka phambili, emva kweminyaka elikhulu okanye ngaphezulu sele zenzeka izinto ezibhalwe kuzo. Ezinye iingcali zizithethelela ngokuthi zisekelwe kwimibhalo yangaphambili kodwa ke abukho ubungqina baloo nto. Ngaloo ndlela kufanelekile ukubuza ukuba, yiyiphi oza kuyikholelwa—bubungqina bengqina lokuzibonela okanye bobabantu ababephila emva kwamakhulu  eminyaka zenzekayo ezi ziganeko? Impendulo izicacele. *

IPapyrus Rylands 457 (P52), isiqwengana seVangeli kaYohane senkulungwane yesibini yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo, sabhalwa emva kwamashumi ambalwa eminyaka emva kwencwadi yeVangeli eyayibhalwe nguYohane ngokwakhe

Kuthekani ngoluvo lokuba iincwadi zeVangeli eziseBhayibhileni zatshintshwa ukuze kufihlwe iinkalo ezithile zobomi bukaYesu? Ngokomzekelo, ngaba bukho ubungqina bokuba iVangeli kaYohane yatshintshwa ngenkulungwane yesine ukuze kugqwethwe izibakala? Ukuze kuphendulwe lo mbuzo, kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba omnye wemibhalo-ngqangi ephambili eyasetyenziswa xa kwakusenziwa le Bhayibhile sinayo yiVatican 1209 yenkulungwane yesine. Ukuba iBhayibhile yethu ibinezinto ezatshintshwayo kwinkulungwane yesine, loo nto ibiya kubonakala kulo mbhalo-ngqangi. Okuvuyisayo kukuba omnye umbhalo-ngqangi ekuthiwa yiBodmer 14, 15 (P75), onenxalenye enkulu yeVangeli kaLuka noYohane wabhalwa ngowe-175 C.E. ukusa kowama-225 C.E. Ngokutsho kweengcali, awahlukanga kuyaphi kwiVatican 1209. Ngamanye amazwi, akukho lutshintsho lungako lwenziwayo kwiincwadi zeVangeli eziseBhayibhileni yaye iVatican 1209 iyayixhasa loo nto.

Abukho ubungqina bokuba incwadi kaYohane okanye ezinye iincwadi zeVangeli—zatshintshwa ngenkulungwane yesine. Emva kokuba eye wahlola ingqokelela yeziqwenga zemibhalo-ngqangi ezafunyanwa eOxyrhynchus, eYiputa, uGqr. Peter M. Head weYunivesithi yaseCambridge wabhala: “Singathi le mibhalo-ngqangi iqinisekisa ukuchana kwemibhalo ebhalwe ngoonobumba abakhulu ababesetyenziswa ngenkulungwane yesine, ezisekelwe kuyo iinguqulelo ezibalulekileyo zanamhlanje. Akukho mfuneko yokuyiqonda ngendlela eyahlukileyo imibhalo yamandulo yeTestamente Entsha.”

Umbhalo ngqangi wenkulungwane yesine obizwa ngokuba yiVatican 1209 ongasentla ubonisa ukuba luncinane kakhulu utshintsho olwenziwa kwiincwadi zeVangeli

Sisiphi Isigqibo Esifanele Sifikelele Kuso?

Iincwadi zeVangeli ezine eziphefumlelweyo—ekaMateyu, uMarko, uLuka noYohane—zazisamkelwa ngawo onke amaKristu kwasembindini wenkulungwane yesibini. IDiatessaron kaTatian esetyenziswa ngokubanzi neyenziwa phakathi kowe-160 nowe-175 C.E., yayisekelwe kwiincwadi zeVangeli eziphefumlelweyo ezine kuphela kungekhona kuyo nanye “yeevangeli” zeGnostiki. (Funda ibhokisi ethi  “Ukuqala Kokukhuselwa Kweencwadi ZeVangeli.”) Enye into ebangel’ umdla yathethwa nguIrenaeus owayephila ngenkulungwane yesibini yeXesha Eliqhelekileyo. Wathi kumele kubekho iincwadi zeVangeli ezine, njengokuba kukho iimbombo ezine zomhlaba noomoya abane. Nangona zisenokuphikiswa izinto awazithelekisayo, into awayithethayo ixhasa uluvo lokuba kwakukho iincwadi zeVangeli ezine ngelo xesha.

Zithetha ntoni zonke ezi zinto? Zithetha ukuba iZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike—kuquka iincwadi ezine zeVangeli esinazo namhlanje, azikhange zitshintshe kangako ukususela ngenkulungwane yesibini ukusa phambili. Asikho isizathu esivakalayo sokukholelwa ukuba ngenkulungwane yesine kwenziwa ilinge lokutshintsha okanye lokufihla inxalenye ethile yeZibhalo eziphefumlelwe nguThixo. Ngokwahlukileyo koko, umphengululi weBhayibhile uBruce Metzger wabhala: “Ngasekupheleni  kwenkulungwane yesibini, . . . amabandla awahlukahlukeneyo amakholwa awayesasazeke kuwo wonke ummandla weMeditera ukuya kutsho eBritani naseMesopotamiya, ayeyamkela ngokubanzi inxalenye enkulu yeTestamente Entsha.”

Umpostile uPawulos noPetros babeyixhasa inyaniso eseLizwini likaThixo. Omabini la madoda alumkisa amaKristu ukuba angamkeli nantoni na awayengayifundiswanga. Ngokomzekelo, uPawulos wabhalela uTimoti wathi: “Owu Timoti, kulondoloze oko ukuphathisiweyo, ukhwebuke kwiintetho ezililize ezihlambela oko kungcwele nakwiimpikiswano zoko kubizwa ngokuba ‘lulwazi’ kuxokwa. Ngokuqhayisa ngolwazi olunjalo abathile baye baphambuka elukholweni.” UPetros yena wathi: “Hayi khona, akubanga ngokulandela amabali obuxoki ayilwe ngobuqhetseba esathi saniqhelanisa namandla nobukho beNkosi yethu uYesu Kristu, kodwa kwaba ngokuthi sibe ngamangqina okuzibonela ubungangamela bayo.”—1 Timoti 6:20, 21; 2 Petros 1:16.

Kwiinkulungwane ezadlulayo, umprofeti uIsaya waphefumlelwa ukuba athi: “Ingca eluhlaza yomile, intyatyambo ibunile; kodwa ke lona ilizwi loThixo wethu, liya kuhlala ukusa kwixesha elingenammiselo.” (Isaya 40:8) Sinokuba nentembelo yokuba Lowo waphefumlela iZibhalo Ezingcwele uye wazigcina ukutyhubela iminyaka ukuze “zonke iintlobo zabantu zisindiswe zize zifikelele elwazini oluchanileyo lwenyaniso.”—1 Timoti 2:4.

^ isiqe. 3 Igama elithi “Gnostiki” nelithi “Apocryphal” avela kumagama esiGrike anokuthetha “ulwazi olufihlakeleyo” “nolwazi olufihlwe ngenyameko.” La mabinzana abhekisela kwiincwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga ezifana neencwadi zeVangeli, Izenzo, iiLeta neencwadi zezityhilelo ezikwiZibhalo zamaKristu zesiGrike eziphefumlelweyo.

^ isiqe. 11 Enye into eyingxaki ngeencwadi ezingaphefumlelwanga kukuba kukho imibhalo embalwa kakhulu yazo namhlanje. Namhlanje kukho iziqwenga ezibini ezincinane kuphela zencwadi yeVangeli kaMariya waseMagadala ekuthethwe ngayo ngasentla yaye inxalenye yayo enkulu ayisekho. Ukongezelela koko, yahlukene kakhulu imibhalo-ngqangi yazo ekhoyo.