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IMBONISELO 2009-11-01

Ibali Elichukumisayo Lokusinda KweBhayibhile

Ibali Elichukumisayo Lokusinda KweBhayibhile

IBHAYIBHILE yeyona ncwadi iye yasasazwa kakhulu kwezakhe zakho—kuqikelelwa ukuba sele kusasazwe malunga nama-4.8 amawaka ezigidi zayo. Kunyaka wama-2007 nje kuphela, kuye kwenziwa iiBhayibhile ezingaphezu kwama-64 600 000. Ukuze uyiqonde kakuhle ukuba ithetha ukuthini into yokuthengwa kweBhayibhile kangaka, kufuneka wazi ukuba eyona ncwadi yamabali yathengiswa kakhulu ngaloo nyaka, kwathengiswa nje izigidi ezili-12 zayo eUnited States.

IBhayibhile iye yasinda kwiingozi ezininzi ukuze ngoku ibe yeyona ncwadi ipapashwa kakhulu ehlabathini. Ukutyhubela imbali, iBhayibhile iye yabhangiswa, yatshiswa, baza abo babeyiguqulela batshutshiswa baza babulawa. Kodwa ke, eyona nto eyayibeka engozini ngakumbi yayingekokutshutshiswa kwabantu ababenayo, kodwa olona tshaba lwayo yayikukonakala kwezinto eyayibhalwe kuzo. Yayibangelwa yintoni loo nto?

IBhayibhile yingqokelela yeencwadi ezincinane ezingama-66, yaye ezona zindala kuzo zabhalwa ngamaSirayeli ngaphezu kweminyaka engama-3 000 eyadlulayo. Ababhali bokuqala okanye abakhupheli bayo basibhala esi sigidimi siphefumlelweyo kwizinto ezonakalayo, njengompapiri nesikhumba. Ayikafunyanwa nanamhla oku eyona mibhalo yayo yantlandlolo. Kodwa kuye kwafunyanwa amawaka emibhalo yamandulo emincinane nemikhulu yeencwadi zeBhayibhile. Enye yezi ncwadi yeyeVangeli kaYohane eyabhalwa nje kumashumi ambalwa eminyaka emva kwaleyo yabhalwa nguYohane ngokwakhe.

“Indlela ekhutshelwe ngayo imibhalo yeBhayibhile yesiHebhere [iTestamente Endala] ichane ngeyona ndlela kangangokuba ayikho eminye imibhalo yesiGrike nesiLatini yamandulo ekhutshelwe ngokuchane njengayo”—UNjingalwazi Julio Trebolle Barrera

Kutheni ingumnqa into yokuba kubekho izibhalo zeBhayibhile ezasindayo? Khona, zifana kangakanani izinto ezibhalwe kwiiBhayibhile zangoku nezo zazibhalwe ngababhali bokuqala?

Kwenzeka Ntoni Kwamanye Amaxwebhu Amandulo?

Indlela eyasinda ngayo iBhayibhile iyamangalisa, xa ucinga ngezinto ezazibhalwe ziintlanga ezaziphila ngaxeshanye namaSirayeli. Ngokomzekelo, amaFenike ayengabamelwane bamaSirayeli ngewaka leminyaka lokuqala Ngaphambi kweXesha Eliqhelekileyo. Aba barhwebi basasaza indlela yabo yokubhala kuyo yonke imimandla yeMeditera. Kwakhona bazuza ngokurhweba ngompapari neYiputa kunye namaGrike. Nakuba kunjalo, iphephancwadi iNational Geographic lithi ngawo: “Inkoliso yemibhalo yawo, eyayibhalwe kwimipapiri eyayikhawuleza ukonakala yatshabalala—ngenxa yoko izinto ezenziwa ngamaFenike sifunda ngazo kwiingxelo ezabhalwa ziintshaba zawo ezazinomkhethe. Nangona kusithiwa amaFenike ayenoncwadi oluninzi, lwalahleka kudala.”

Kuthekani ngemibhalo yamaYiputa amandulo? Imibhalo yawo eyaziwayo yileyo awayeyibhale okanye eyizobe kwiindonga zeetempile nakwezinye iindawo. Kwakhona, amaYiputa adume ngokubhala kwimipapiri. Noko ke, isazi ngenkcubeko yamaYiputa uK. A. Kitchen uthi ngokuphathelele iingxelo zawo ezazibhalwe kwimipapiri: “Kuqikelelwa ukuba kuye kwatshabalala ngaphezu kwama-99 ekhulwini ayo yonke imibhalo yemipapri eyabhalwa ukususela malunga neminyaka engama-3000  eyadlulayo ukuya kulawulo lwamaGrike namaRoma.”

Kuthekani ngeengxelo zamaRoma ezazibhalwe kwimipapiri? Khawucinge ngalo mzekelo. Incwadi ethi Roman Military Records on Papyrus ithi amajoni aseRoma ayebhatalwa kathathu ngonyaka, yaye iingxelo zokuhlawulwa kwawo zazibhalwa kwimipapiri. Kuqikelelwa ukuba kwiminyaka engama-300 esusela kulawulo luka-Augustus (27 B.C.E.–14 C.E) ukuya kuDiocletian (284-305 C.E), kwenziwa iingxelo ezilolo hlobo ezingama-225 000 000. Zingaphi eziye zasinda? Zimbini kuphela eziye zafunyanwa nezinokufundeka.

Kutheni embalwa kangaka amaxwebhu amandulo emipapiri aye asinda? Izinto zokubhala ezinjengompapiri, ufele nezinye ziyakhawuleza ukonakala kwindawo efumileyo. IThe Anchor Bible Dictionary ithi: “Ngenxa yemozulu, amaxwebhu ompapiri elo xesha [iwaka leminyaka lokuqala Ngaphambi kweXesha Eliqhelekileyo] asinda kuphela xa egcinwe entlango, emqolombeni okanye kwindawo ekhuselekileyo.”

Kuthekani Ngeencwadi ZeBhayibhile?

Kuyacaca ukuba iincwadi zokuqala zeBhayibhile zazibhalwe kwizinto ezonakala lula njengezo zazisetyenziswa ngamaFenike, amaYiputa namaRoma. Kwakutheni ke ngoko ukuze iincwadi zeBhayibhile zisinde, nto leyo eyenza iBhayibhile ibe yeyona ncwadi ipapashwa kakhulu ehlabathini? UNjingalwazi James L. Kugel uchaza esinye isizathu. Uthi, imibhalo yayo yokuqala yakhutshelwa “izihlandlo ezininzi, nkqu nangexesha kusabhalwa iBhayibhile.”

Iinguqulelo zale mihla zeBhayibhile zifana kangakanani nemibhalo-ngqangi yamandulo? UNjingalwazi Julio Trebolle Barrera, owayelilungu leqela leengcali elaligunyaziswe ukufunda nokupapasha imibhalo-ngqangi yamandulo ebizwa ngokuba yimisongo Yolwandle Olufileyo, uthi: “Indlela ekhutshelwe ngayo imibhalo yeBhayibhile yesiHebhere ichane ngeyona ndlela kangangokuba ayikho eminye imibhalo yesiGrike nesiLatini yamandulo ekhutshelwe ngokuchane njengayo.” Umphengululi weBhayibhile ohlonelwayo uF. Bruce uthi: “Sinentabalala yobungqina obuxhasa ukuchana kwemibhalo yeTestamente Entsha kunabo nabuphi na ubungqina obuxhasa ukuchana kweminye imibhalo yamandulo, umnqa kukuba akukho mntu ukuthandabuzayo ukuchana kwaloo mibhalo yamandulo.” Waleka umsundulo esithi: “Ukuba iTestamente Entsha ibiyingqokelela yemibhalo yehlabathi, ukuchana kwayo bekungayi kuthandatyuzwa.” Alithandabuzeki elokuba iBhayibhile yincwadi ekhethekileyo. Ngaba uyifunda, yonke imihla?—1 Petros 1:24, 25.

Namhlanje kusekho imibhalo engama-6000 yeZibhalo zesiHebhere okanye iTestamente Endala ebhalwe ngesandla, nengama-5000 yeZibhalo zesiGrike okanye iTestamente Entsha

 

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