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AmaNgqina KaYehova

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IMBONISELO (YOKUFUNDISA) DISEMBA 2013

‘Oku Koba Sisikhumbuzo Kuni’

‘Oku Koba Sisikhumbuzo Kuni’

 ‘Oku Koba Sisikhumbuzo Kuni’

“Olu suku loba sisikhumbuzo kuni, yaye nimele nilubhiyozele njengomthendeleko kuYehova.”—EKS. 12:14.

1, 2. Luluphi usuku amele abe nomdla kulo amaKristu, ibe kutheni?

XA UCINGA ngemihla yokukhumbula iziganeko, nguwuphi okhawuleza uthi qatha engqondweni? Umntu otshatileyo usenokuthi: “Lusuku lomtshato wam.” Abanye basenokucinga ngomhla obalulekileyo nobhiyozelwa ngabantu abaninzi, njengokukhululeka kwelizwe labo. Kodwa ngaba ubusazi ukuba kukho usuku obelubhiyozelwa sisizwe sonke iminyaka engaphezu kwe-3 500?

2 Olu suku yiPasika. Lusuku lokubhiyozela ukukhululeka kwamaSirayeli kubukhoboka baseYiputa. Lumele lubaluleke nakuwe. Ngoba? Kaloku luchaphazela ubomi bakho ngeendlela ezibalulekileyo. Kodwa usenokuthi, ‘NdingumKristu nje mna, ndingena phi kwiPasika yamaYuda? Kutheni ndimele ndibe nomdla kuyo?’ Impendulo ikula mazwi abangel’ umdla athi: “UKristu ipasika yethu ubingelelwe.” (1 Kor. 5:7) Ukuze siqonde indlela ebaluleke ngayo le nyaniso, simele siqale sazi ngePasika yamaYuda size siqonde ukuba idibana njani nomyalelo oya kumaKristu onke.

KWAKUTHENI UKUZE KUBEKHO IPASIKA?

3, 4. Yintoni eyenzekayo ngaphambi kwePasika yokuqala?

3 Zizigidi ngezigidi abantu abangengomaYuda ehlabathini lonke abayaziyo imvelaphi yePasika. Bambi baye bazifundela ngayo kwincwadi yeBhayibhile iEksodus, abanye beva kubaliswa ngayo okanye babukela imuvi ethetha ngayo.

4 Emva kokuba amaSirayeli echithe iminyaka engamakhoboka eYiputa, uYehova wathumela uMoses nomntakwabo, uAron, kuFaro ukuba akhulule abantu Bakhe. Ngenxa yekratshi, loo mlawuli waseYiputa wala ukuwakhulula amaSirayeli, waza ke uYehova wabetha elo lizwe ngothotho lwezibetho. Ekugqibeleni,  uThixo wazisa isibetho seshumi, esabulala amazibulo aseYiputa, saza sanyanzela uFaro ukuba agob’ uphondo.—Eks. 1:11; 3:9, 10; 5:1, 2; 11:1, 5.

5. Yintoni ayemele ayenze amaSirayeli ngaphambi kokuba akhululwe? (Jonga umfanekiso osekuqaleni.)

5 Ayemele enze ntoni amaSirayeli ngaphambi kokuba akhululwe? Kwakusentwasahlobo ngo-1513 B.C.E., kwinyanga ekuthiwa nguAbhibhi ngesiHebhere, kamva ekwathiwa nguNisan. * UThixo waxelela amaSirayeli ukuba ngomhla weshumi kuloo nyanga, ayemele aqalise ukulungiselela umhla kaNisan 14. Olo suku lwaluqalisa ngorhatya, kuba iintsuku zamaHebhere zaziqalisa ngorhatya ziphele ngorhatya lwemini elandelayo. NgoNisan 14, ntsapho nganye kwakufuneka ixhele imvu (okanye ibhokhwe) eliduna ize itshize ngegazi layo emgubasini nakumphezulu womnyango. (Eks. 12:3-7, 22, 23) Le ntsapho yayimele itye inyama yemvu eyojiweyo kunye nesonka esingenagwele nohlaza. Ingelosi kaThixo yayiza kudlula kwelo lizwe ize ixabele amazibulo aseYiputa, kodwa amaSirayeli athobelayo ayeza kukhuselwa aze emva koko akhululwe.—Eks. 12:8-13, 29-32.

6. Abantu bakaThixo babemele bayijonge njani iPasika?

6 AmaSirayeli ayemele awukhumbule umhla wokukhululwa kwawo eYiputa nakwiminyaka emva koko. UThixo wathi kuwo: “Olu suku loba sisikhumbuzo kuni, yaye nimele nilubhiyozele njengomthendeleko kuYehova kwizizukulwana zenu. Nifanele nilubhiyozele njengommiselo kuse kwixesha elingenammiselo.” Umbhiyozo womhla we-14 wawulandelwa ngumthendeleko weentsuku ezisixhenxe. UNisan 14 yayingowona mhla wePasika, kodwa igama elithi Pasika linokusetyenziswa xa kubhekiselwa kuzo zonke iintsuku ezisibhozo zomthendeleko. (Eks. 12:14-17; Luka 22:1; Yoh. 18:28; 19:14) IPasika yayiphakathi kwemithendeleko emiselweyo okanye iziganeko ezazimele zibhiyozelwe ngamaHebhere ngonyaka.—2 Kron. 8:13.

7. Sisiphi isiganeko esitsha esamiselwa nguYesu ngePasika yokugqibela?

7 UYesu nabapostile bakhe babeyibhiyozela iPasika kuba babengamaYuda, bephantsi koMthetho kaMoses. (Mat. 26:17-19) Kwisihlandlo sokugqibela bekwenza oku, uYesu wamisela isiganeko esitsha ababemele basenze nyaka ngamnye abalandeli bakhe—iSidlo Sangokuhlwa SeNkosi. Kodwa babemele basenze ngaluphi usuku?

ISIDLO SANGOKUHLWA SENKOSI—NGALUPHI USUKU?

8. Nguwuphi umbuzo ophakamayo ngokuphathelele iPasika neSidlo Sangokuhlwa SeNkosi?

8 Ekubeni uYesu wasungula iSidlo Sangokuhlwa SeNkosi emva nje kwePasika yokugqibela, esi siganeko sitsha sasiza kuba ngosuku lwePasika. Noko ke, mhlawumbi uye waqaphela ukuba umhla wePasika yamaYuda oboniswe kwezinye iikhalenda zale mihla wahluka ngosuku okanye ngeentsuku kulowo sikukhumbula ngawo ukufa kukaKristu. Ubangelwa yintoni lo mahluko? Esinye isizathu sisifumana kumyalelo kaThixo owawusiya kumaSirayeli. Emva kokuchaza ukuba ‘indibano yakwaSirayeli iphela imele ixhele’ imvu, wayichazela ukuba imele yenjenjalo nini apha kumhla kaNisan 14.—Funda iEksodus 12:5, 6.

9. Ngokutsho kwe-Eksodus 12:6, yayimele ixhelwe nini imvu yePasika? (Funda ibhokisi ethi  “Ngaliphi Ixesha Lemini?”)

9 Incwadi yamaYuda ethi The Pentateuch and Haftorahs ibonisa ukuba iEksodus 12:6 ithi imvu yayimele ixhelwe “phakathi kweengokuhlwa ezimbini.” Nezinye iiBhayibhile zisebenzisa kanye loo mazwi. Ezinye, ezifana neTanakh yamaYuda, ziguqulele eli binzana ngokuthi “ngokuhlwa.” Kanti  ezinye zithi “ngorhatya” okanye “ukutshona kwelanga.” Ngoko imvu yayimele ixhelwe emva kokuba ilanga litshonile kodwa kusakhanya, ekuqaleni kukaNisan 14.

10. Ngokutsho kwabathile, yayimele ixhelwe nini imvu, kodwa oko kuphakamisa wuphi umbuzo?

10 Kamva, amanye amaYuda avakalelwa ukuba kwakuya kuthatha iiyure ukuxhela zonke izimvu eziziswa etempileni. Ngoko ayekholelwa ukuba iEksodus 12:6 ibhekisela ekupheleni kukaNisan 14, phakathi kwaxa ilanga laliqalisa ukutshona (emva kwemini) nasekupheleni kosuku ukutshona kwelanga. Kodwa ke, ukuba kunjalo, isidlo sasiza kufunyanwa nini? UNjingalwazi uJonathan Klawans, oyingcali kwimicimbi yamaYuda amandulo, wathi: “Nakuba ukulandelelana kwemihla kungachazwanga ngokuthe ngqo kwiEksodus, usuku olutsha luqalisa ukutshona kwelanga, ngoko umbingelelo wenziwa nge-14, kodwa iPasika nesidlo sayo ziqala nge-15.” Waphinda wathi: “Iincwadi zooRabhi . . . azithethi kwanto ngendlela eyayisenziwa ngayo iSeder [isidlo sePasika] ngaphambi kokutshatyalaliswa kweTempile” ngonyaka ka-70.

11. (a) Ziziphi izinto ezenzekayo kuYesu ngePasika ka-33? (b) Kwakutheni ukuze kuthiwe uNisan 15 ngonyaka ka-33 wawuyiSabatha ‘enkulu’? (Funda umbhalo osemazantsi.)

11 Simele sizibuze ukuba, Yaqhutywa njani iPasika ngonyaka ka-33? Njengokuba wawusondela loo mhla, ‘lowo kwakumele kubingelelwe ngawo ixhoba,’ ngoNisan 13 uKristu wathi kuPetros noYohane: “Hambani niye nisilungiselela ipasika ukuze siyidle.” (Luka 22:7, 8) ‘Ethubeni lafika ilixa’ lesidlo sePasika, emva kokutshona kwelanga xa kuqala uNisan 14, ngengokuhlwa yangoLwesine. UYesu wadla kunye nabapostile bakhe, waza emva koko wamisela iSidlo Sangokuhlwa SeNkosi. (Luka 22:14, 15) Ngobo busuku wabanjwa kwaza kwathethwa ityala lakhe. Wabethelelwa emini ngoNisan 14, ibe wafa kuloo mva kwemini. (Yoh. 19:14) Ngoko ke, ‘UKristu ipasika yethu wabingelelwa’ kwangolo suku lunye lokuxhelwa kwemvana yePasika. (1 Kor. 5:7; 11:23; Mat. 26:2) Njengokuba olo suku lwamaYuda lwalusondela ekupheleni, uYesu wangcwatywa—ngaphambi kokuqalisa kukaNisan 15. *Lev. 23:5-7; Luka 23:54.

ISIKHUMBUZO ESIBALULEKILEYO KUWE

12, 13. Yintoni eyayidla ngokwenziwa ngabantwana bamaYuda ngePasika?

12 Ngoku makhe sibuyele eYiputa xa  kwakusenzeka esi siganeko. UMoses wathi abantu bakaThixo babeza kuyigcina iPasika; benjenjalo de “kuse kwixesha elingenammiselo.” Enye into eyayisenzeka kulo msitho waminyaka le, kukuba abantwana babebuza abazali ngentsingiselo yePasika. (Funda iEksodus 12:24-27; Dut. 6:20-23) Ngenxa yoko, iPasika yayiza kuba “sisikhumbuzo” esibalulekileyo nasebantwaneni.—Eks. 12:14.

13 Ukutyhubela izizukulwana, abazali babeza kufundisa abantwana babo izifundo ezibalulekileyo. Esinye sezo zifundo yayikukuba uYehova unako ukubakhusela abanquli bakhe. Abantwana bafunda ukuba akasosithixo nje, sona singenabuntu. UYehova nguThixo ophilayo obakhathalelayo aze abakhusele abantu bakhe. Oku wakubonisa xa wakhusela amazibulo amaSirayeli “ekuwabetheni kwakhe amaYiputa ngesibetho.” Wawagcina ephila amazibulo amaSirayeli.

14. IPasika inokunceda abazali abangamaKristu babafundise ntoni abantwana babo?

14 Namhlanje akuyomfuneko ukuba abazali abangamaKristu basoloko bechazela abantwana babo ngePasika minyaka le. Noko ke, ngaba uyabafundisa abantwana bakho esi sifundo sibalulekileyo, sokuba uThixo uyabakhusela abantu bakhe? Ngaba bayayibona into yokuba weyisekile ukuba uYehova usenguMkhuseli wokwenene wabantu bakhe? (INdu. 27:11; Isa. 12:2) Ngaba bayonwaba abantwana bakho xa ubafundisa kuba bengavakalelwa kukuba uyabanyanzela? Zama kangangoko unako ukubafundisa ngezi zinto ukuze womeleze ulwalamano lwentsapho yakho noYehova.

Kule ngxubusho yePasika, ziziphi izifundo oceba ukuzifundisa abantwana bakho? (Funda isiqendu 14)

15, 16. Ingxelo yePasika naleyo ikwiEksodus inokusinceda sigxinisise ntoni ngoYehova?

15 IPasika ayaneli nje ukusifundisa ukuba uYehova unako ukukhusela abantu bakhe. Sifunda nokuba wabahlangula ‘ngokubakhupha eYiputa.’ Cinga nje ukuba kwakunjani ngeso sihlandlo. Bakhokelwa ngumqulu welifu nowomlilo. Banqumla komile kuLwandle Olubomvu ngoxa babephahlwe ngamanzi macala. Banela nje ukuwela, loo manzi asala ewugubungela umkhosi wamaYiputa. Emva kokuhlangulwa, amaSirayeli adanduluka esithi: “Mandimvumele uYehova . . . Ihashe nomkhweli walo uliphose elwandle. UYa ungamandla am nokomelela kwam, ekubeni elusindiso kum.”—Eks. 13:14, 21, 22; 15:1, 2; INdu. 136:11-15.

16 Ukuba unabantwana, ngaba uyabanceda bamthembe uYehova ukuba unguMhlanguli? Ngaba bayayibona indlela oweyiseke ngayo, kwindlela othetha ngayo nakwizigqibo ozenzayo? Mhlawumbi kuNqulo Lwentsapho unokusebenzisa izifundo esizifumana kwiEksodus isahluko 12-15 ukugxininisa indlela uYehova awabahlangula ngayo abantu bakhe. Ezinye izibhalo onokuzisebenzisa kule nkalo ziZenzo 7:30-36 okanye uDaniyeli 3:16-18, 26-28. Ewe sonke, enoba sibadala okanye siselula, sinokuqiniseka ukuba uYehova usenguye uMhlanguli  nanamhlanje. Njengokuba wabahlangulayo abantu bakhe ngemihla kaMoses, uza kusihlangula nathi kwixesha elizayo.—Funda eyoku-1 kwabaseTesalonika 1:9, 10.

OKO SIMELE SIKUKHUMBULE

17, 18. Yintoni esimele siyikhumbule xa sicinga ngegazi elasetyenziswa kwiPasika yokuqala?

17 AmaKristu okwenyaniso akayibhiyozeli iPasika yamaYuda. Umbhiyozo wayo wawuyinxalenye yoMthetho kaMoses, ibe thina asikho phantsi kwaloo Mthetho. (Roma 10:4; Kol. 2:13-16) Kunoko, sigcina isiganeko sokufa koNyana kaThixo. Sekunjalo, zikho iinkalo ezisichaphazelayo kwesi siganeko sasungulwa eYiputa.

18 Igazi lemvu elatshizwa emigubasini nakumphezulu womnyango lalithetha ukusindiswa kobomi. Namhlanje, asibingeleli ngezilwanyana kuThixo nanini na—nkqu nangePasika. Kodwa kukho umbingelelo obhetele onokusindisa ubomi ngonaphakade. Umpostile uPawulos wabhala ‘ngebandla lamazibulo abhaliswe emazulwini.’ AmaKristu athanjisiweyo asindiswa ‘ngegazi lokufefa’ likaYesu. (Heb. 12:23, 24) NamaKristu anethemba lokuphila ngonaphakade emhlabeni axhomekeke kwakweli gazi ukuze asinde. Amele ahlale ekhumbula la mazwi asisiqinisekiso athi: “Ngaye siye sakhululwa ngentlawulelo ngalo igazi lakhe, saxolelwa izigqitho zethu, ngokobutyebi bobubele bakhe obungasifanelanga.”—Efe. 1:7.

19. Indlela ekwakusenziwa ngayo kwimvu exhelelwe iPasika isinceda njani sithembele ngakumbi kwiziprofeto?

19 Xa kwakuxhelwa imvu yesidlo sePasika, amaSirayeli ayengamele aphule naliphi na ithambo layo. (Eks. 12:46; Num. 9:11, 12) Kuthekani ‘ngeMvana kaThixo’ eyazinikelayo yaba yintlawulelo? (Yoh. 1:29) Yabethelelwa kunye nezaphuli-mthetho ezaziyixhage macala omabini. AmaYuda acela kuPilato ukuba amathambo ala madoda abethelelweyo aphulwe. Oku kwakuza kubangela ukuba akhawuleze afe, engekafiki umhla kaNisan 15, owawulusuku lokungqamana kweeSabatha ezimbini. Amajoni ayaphula imilenze yezaphuli-mthetho ezimbini, “kodwa akufika kuYesu, njengoko abonayo ukuba wayesele efile, akayaphulanga imilenze yakhe.” (Yoh. 19:31-34) Oku kwakufana nento eyayisenziwa kwimvu yePasika, ngoko le mvu singathi yaba ‘sisithunzi’ sento eyayiza kwenzeka ngoNisan 14 ka-33. (Heb. 10:1) Ukongezelela koko, indlela ezenzeka ngayo izinto yazalisekisa amazwi akwiNdumiso 34:20, nto leyo emele isenze sithembele ngakumbi kwiziprofeto.

20. Nguwuphi umahluko okhoyo phakathi kwePasika neSidlo Sangokuhlwa SeNkosi?

20 Noko ke, zikho iindlela eyahluke ngazo iPasika kwiSidlo Sangokuhlwa SeNkosi. Ngokomzekelo, amaSirayeli ayemele adle inyama, kodwa angalidli igazi lemvu. Oko kwahlukile kwinto uYesu awayiyalela abafundi bakhe. Wathi abo baza kulawula “ebukumkanini bukaThixo” bamele basidle isonka newayini njengezifuzisela inyama negazi lakhe. Oku siza kuthetha ngakumbi ngako kwinqaku elilandelayo.—Marko 14:22-25.

21. Kutheni kubalulekile nje ukwazi ngePasika?

21 Nakuba kunjalo, ayithandabuzeki into yokuba iPasika yayisisiganeko esibaluleke gqitha kwimbali yamaSirayeli, ibe ngamnye kuthi unokufunda lukhulu kuyo. Ngoko ngoxa iPasika yayimele ibe ‘sisikhumbuzo’ samaYuda, kungekhona esamaKristu, thina maKristu simele siyazi yaye sicingisise ngezifundo esizifumana kwiPasika njengokuba iyinxalenye yaso ‘sonke iSibhalo esiphefumlelwe nguThixo.’—2 Tim. 3:16.

^ isiqe. 5 Nangona igama elithi Nisan iligama elasetyenziswa kamva ukubiza le nyanga yesiHebhere, siza kusebenzisa lona xa sibhekisela kwinyanga yokuqala yekhalenda yamaYuda.

^ isiqe. 11 Xa kwakuqalisa uNisan 15, ekutshoneni kwelanga ngoLwesihlanu, into ethetha ukuqalisa kweSabatha eqhelekileyo yeveki (esusela kwingokuhlwa yangoLwesihlanu ise kweyangoMgqibelo), kuloo nyaka yangqamana nomhla wokuqala woMthendeleko Wamaqebengwana Angenagwele, osoloko usiba yisabatha. Ngenxa yoku kungqamana kwezi Sabatha zimbini, loo mhla wabizwa ngokuba yiSabatha ‘enkulu.’—Funda uYohane 19:31, 42.