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AmaNgqina KaYehova

IsiXhosa

UVukani!  |  No. 6 2017

 MAKHE SIJONGE EMVA

UAlhazen

UAlhazen

MHLAWUMBI awumazi uAbū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. Kumazwe aseNtshona ubizwa ngokuba nguAlhazen, kuba igama lakhe lesiArabhu elithi al-Ḥasan balitshintsha balibiza ngesiLatini. Kodwa ke, kusenokwenzeka ukuba izinto awazenzayo ziyakunceda nawe. Abanye bathi “ungomnye wabona bantu babalulekileyo nabaye banegalelo kwisayensi.”

UAlhazen wazalelwa eBasra, ngoku ekwilizwe laseIraq, phayaa koo-965. Wayethanda ukufunda ngeenkwenkwezi, izibalo, amayeza, umculo, ukukhanya, isayensi nemibongo. Kodwa yintoni eyona nto sifanele simbulele ngayo?

IDAMA KUMLAMBO UMNAYILE

Kukho ibali ekudala libaliswa ngoAlhazen. Kuthiwa wayefuna ukutshintsha indlela ohamba ngayo uMlambo UmNayile kwiminyaka eyi-1 000 ngaphambi kokuba loo nto ide yenziwe ekugqibeleni eAswân ngo-1902.

Kuthiwa uAlhazen weza necebo lokunqanda izikhukula nembalela eYiputa ngokumba idama kuMlambo UmNayile. Xa iNkosi u-al-Hakim waseCairo weva ngeli cebo lakhe, wambiza ukuba eze eYiputa ukuze akhe eli dama. Kodwa xa uAlhazen wazibonela ngawakhe uMlambo UmNayile, wavela waqonda ukuba soze akwazi ukuyenza le nto. Esoyika le nkosi yayidume ngokukhohlakala, waziphambanisa de yafa kwiminyaka eyi-11 kamva, ngo-1021. Watsho wafumana ixesha lokwenza nezinye izinto xa wayevalelwe kwindawo yabantu abagula ngengqondo.

INCWADI YOKUKHANYA

Wathi ekhululwa uAlhazen wabe sele ebhale inxalenye eninzi yeNcwadi Yokukhanya enemiqulu esixhenxe, nekuthiwa “yenye yezona ncwadi zesayensi zibalulekileyo kwezakha zabhalwa.” Wachaza izinto awazifumanisayo ngokukhanya, indlela okwahlukana ngayo kube yimibalabala, kubonakale kwizipili, nendlela okuba yiyo njengoko kudlula kwenye into kusiya kwenye.  Kwakhona, wafunda indlela elisebenza ngayo ilihlo nendlela elenziwe ngayo.

Ngeminyaka yoo-1200 izinto ezazibhalwe nguAlhazen zaziguqulelwe ngesiLatini zisuka kwisiArabhu, ibe kangangamakhulu eminyaka kamva izifundiswa zaseYurophu zazicaphula kuzo. Izinto ezazibhalwe nguAlhazen ngeelensi zanceda abantu baseYurophu ababesenza iiglasi zamehlo babhaqa indlela yokwenza iteleskopu nemikroskopu.

IKHAMERA YAKUDALA

UAlhazen wabhaqa indlela yokufota xa wenza into esingayibiza ngokuba yikhamera yokuqala eyaziwayo. Le bhokisi yakhe yayinomngxuma omncinci ongenisa ukukhanya, okwakuthi xa kufika eludongeni kubonise loo nto ifotwayo, kodwa ijonge ezantsi.

UAlhazen wenza ikhamera yokuqala kwezakudala

Ngeminyaka yoo-1800 le khamera yaphuculwa ukuze ikwazi ukwenza iifoto. Loo nto yabangela ukuba kuvele iikhamera zala maxesha. Le khamera ka-Alhazen isebenza ngendlela elisebenza ngayo ilihlo kunye neekhamera zanamhlanje. *

ISAYENSI

Enye yezinto ezintle ngoAlhazen yayikukucokisa xa ephanda ngendalo. Wayengenzi ngendlela ekwakusenziwa ngayo ngexesha lakhe. Wayengomnye wabaphandi bokuqala ukufuna ukuyibona isebenza into ngaphambi kokuba bayamkele, ibe wayengonqeni ukuphikisa izimvo ezithandwayo xa zingenabungqina bucacileyo.

Oososayensi bezi mini badla ngokuthi: “Yiza nobungqina bale nto uyitshoyo!” Abanye badla ngokuthi, “le ndlela iqhutywa ngayo isayensi yanamhlanje yaqalwa” nguAlhazen. Xa kunjalo, ininzi into esifanele simbulele ngayo.

^ isiqe. 13 Indlela le khamera efana ngayo nelihlo ayizange iqondwe kakuhle kumazwe aseNtshona de yacaciswa nguJohannes Kepler kwiminyaka yoo-1600.