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UVUKANI! NO. 6 2016

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

UDesiderius Erasmus

UDesiderius Erasmus

NGEMIHLA yakhe, uDesiderius Erasmus (malunga no-1469-1536) ekuqaleni wayethandwa kuba wayengoyena mphengululi uphum’ izandla eYurophu, kodwa ke ekuhambeni kwexesha kwathiwa uligwala okanye umchasi. Xa wayekwimpikiswano eshushu ngezonqulo, wazibhenca iimpazamo kunye nokuxhatshazwa okwakukho kumaKatolika nakubantu ababefuna utshintsho ecaweni. Namhlanje, waziwa njengoyena mntu owayephambili ekuziseni utshintsho kunqulo lwaseYurophu. Njani?

IZIFUNDO NEENKOLELO

Ukwazi kukaErasmus isiGrike nesiLatini kwamenza wathelekisa iinguqulelo zeBhayibhile zesiLatini, njengeVulgate yesiLatini, kunye nemibhalo yesiGrike yamandulo, ebizwa ngokuba ziZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike neyaziwa nangokuba yiTestamente Entsha. Wayeqinisekile ukuba ukwazi iBhayibhile kubalulekile. Ngenxa yaloo nto, wathi iZibhalo Ezingcwele kufuneka ziguqulelwe nakwezinye iilwimi ezazisaziwa ngexesha lakhe.

UErasmus wakhuthaza ukuba kwenziwe utshintsho kwiCawa yamaKatolika, kuba wayekholelwa ukuba ubuKristu bufanele bube bubomi bakho, kungekhona into nje yokugqithis’ usana kunina. Ngenxa yoko, xa abantu ababefuna utshintsho baqalisa ukuqhankqalaza befuna ukuba lwenziwe ecaweni yamaRoma, amaKatolika athi nguye obangele loo nto.

UErasmus wazibhenca iimpazamo kunye nokuxhatshazwa okwakukho kumaKatolika nakubantu ababefuna utshintsho

Kwizinto awazibhalayo, uErasmus wakubhenca ukuxhaphaza kwabefundisi, ukuba nekratshi kwabo, kunye nokukhuthaza koopopu iimfazwe. Wayengavumelani nabefundisi abayisebenzisa kakubi imithetho yecawa—njengokuvuma izono, ukunqulwa kweengcwele, ukuzila ukutya, nokuhambela kwenye indawo ngenjongo yokukhonza—bexhaphaza amarhamente. Wayengaphesheya nakwezinye izinto ezazisenziwa ecaweni, njengentlawulo nokunyanzelwa kwabantu ukuba babe ngoonongendi.

 ITESTAMENTE ENTSHA YESIGRIKE

Ngo-1516, uErasmus wapapasha inguqulelo yakhe yokuqala yeTestamente Entsha yesiGrike, iBhayibhile yokuqala yeZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike. Loo Bhayibhile yakhe yayinendawo yeengcaciso kunye nenguqulelo yesiLatini yeZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike, eyayahlukile kwiVulgate. Ekuhambeni kwexesha, waqhubeka eyihlaziya. Wathi eyigqiba yabe seyahluke mpela kwiVulgate yesiLatini.

ITestament Entsha YesiGrike KaErasmus

Enye ivesi eyayahluke kuyo ngu-1 Yohane 5:7. Ukuxhasa imfundiso kaThixo Oneziqu Ezithathu engekhoyo kwiZibhalo, kwiVulgate bafaka ibinzana elingekhoyo elaziwa ngokuba yicomma Johanneum. Lifundeka ngolu hlobo: “Ezulwini, uYise, uLizwi noMoya Oyingcwele: aba bathathu banye.” Sekunjalo, uErasmus walikhupha elo binzana kwiintlelo zakhe ezimbini zeTestamente Entsha kuba akukho nanye kwimibhalo yesiGrike awayeyifundile eyayinalo. Ekuhambeni kwexesha icawa yamnyanzela ukuba alifake kuhlelo lwakhe lwesithathu.

Iintlelo ezihlaziyiweyo zikaErasmus zeTestamente Entsha yesiGrike zabangela ukuba kuguqulelwe iBhayibhile evakala bhetele ngeelwimi zaseYurophu. UMartin Luther, uWilliam Tyndale, uAntonio Brucioli noFrancisco de Enzinas bazisebenzisa ukuguqulela iZibhalo zesiGrike ngesiJamani, isiNgesi, isiTaliyane nesiSpanish.

UErasmus wayephila kwixesha lombhodamo wonqulo owawunzima kakhulu, kwaye abantu abafuna utshintsho kwicawa yamaProtestanti babengayijongi njengeluncedo iTestamente Entsha yesiGrike awayiguqulelayo. Kwakusithiwa naye ngomnye wabantu ababetshintsha indlela ezenziwa ngayo izinto ecaweni, de utshintsho lwayinto eyenzeka ngokwenene. Waye akafuna ukuba nenxaxheba kwiingxoxo zezakwalizwi ezabakho emva koko. Okubangel’ umdla kukuba, kwiminyaka engaphezu kwe-100 eyadlulayo, umphengululi uDavid Schaff wabhala wathi uErasmus “wafa engelolungu lecawa. AmaKatolika ayengenakumbanga; namaProtestanti ayengakwazi.”