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UVUKANI! NO. 5 2016

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

UAristotle

UAristotle

KWIMINYAKA engaphezu kwe-2 300 eyadlulayo, uAristotle wadlala indima enkulu kwisayensi nentanda-bulumko. Izinto awazibhalayo zisathandwa kakhulu kwaye ziye zaguqulelwa zaza zahlolisiswa. UProfesa wembali, uJames MacLachlan, wabhala wathi “indlela uAristotle awayibona ngayo indalo iye yathandwa kakhulu eYurophu phantse iminyaka eyi-2 000.” Ezinye zeendlela awayebona ngazo izinto ziye zangena kwiimfundiso zamaKatolika, amaProtestanti namaSilamsi.

Izinto Awayezithanda Zazininzi

UAristotle wabhala ngezobugcisa, iinkwenkwezi, ibhayoloji, indlela yokuziphatha, iilwimi, umthetho, indlela abantu abacinga ngayo, amandla eemagnethi, inzululwazi, ukuzonwabisa, imibongo, ukusebenza kwengqondo, ubuciko bokuthetha kunye nomphefumlo, awayekholelwa ukuba uyafa. Kodwa waziwa kakhulu ngezinto awazibhalayo ngebhayoloji nendlela abantu abacinga ngayo.

Abaphengululi abangamaGrike bamandulo babexhomekeke kakhulu ekubukeleni, ekubaleni nakwindlela abantu abacinga ngayo ukuze bacacise indalo. Babekholelwa ukuba banokufikelela kwizigqibo ezifanelekileyo ngezinto xa benokucingisisa kakuhle ngezinto abathi zizicacele kwindalo.

Besebenzisa le ndlela yokucinga, bakwazi ukufikelela kwizigqibo ezivakalayo. Esinye sazo sesokuba kukho indlela ethile yokwenza izinto kwindalo yonke. Sekunjalo, abantu abaninzi abakrelekrele njengoAristotle baphambuka kuba babebona kuphela oko kuphambi kwamehlo abo. Ngokomzekelo, babekholelwa ukuba ezinye iiplanethi neenkwenkwezi zijikeleza umhlaba. Ngelo xesha, kwakusithiwa  le yinyaniso engenakuphikiswa. Incwadi ethi The Closing of the Western Mind ithi, “Indlela ezaziqondwa ngayo izinto nokuhamba kwexesha, zonke zazibonakala zikungqina oko kuthethwa ngamaGrike ngendalo ejikeleza umhlaba.”

Le ndlela iphosakeleyo yokubona izinto yayingayi kuba yingxaki kangako ukuba yahlala iyindlela yokucinga yoososayensi. Kodwa zange kube njalo.

AmaKatolika Amkela Iimfundiso Zika-Aristotle

Ezinye zeemfundiso zika-Aristotle zamkelwa ngabo babezibiza ngokuba ngamaKristu aseYoruphu amandulo, ecinga ukuba zichanile. Abefundisi abangamaRoma Katolika, ingakumbi uThomas Aquinas (owayephila malunga no-1224-1274), baxuba izinto azibhalileyo kwiimfundiso zabo. Ngenxa yoko, imbono ka-Aristotle yokuba indalo ijikeleza umhlaba yaba yimfundiso yamaKatolika. Le mfundiso yamkelwa naziinkokeli zamaProtestanti, njengoCalvin noLuther, zisithi yimfundiso yeBhayibhile.—Jonga ibhokisi ethi “ Babezibaxa Izinto Ezibhalwe EBhayibhileni.”

Ezinye zeemfundiso zika-Aristotle zamkelwa kuba kucingwa ukuba zichanile

Umbhali, uCharles Freeman wathi: “Iimfundiso [zika-Aristotle] nezamaKatolika kwakusele kunzima ukuzahlula.” Ngenxa yoko, kuthiwa uAquinas “wambhaptiza” uAristotle waba ngumKatolika. Ngokutsho kukaFreeman, inyaniso kukuba “uAquinas wamkela iimfundiso zika-Aristotle.” Ngokomkhamo othile, sinokuthi necawa yenza okufanayo. Ngenxa yoko xa wazama ukuza nobungqina bokuba umhlaba ujikeleza ilanga, uGalileo, isazi ngeenkwenkwezi nezibalo saseItaly, wanyanzelwa yicawa yamaKatolika ukuba arhoxe kwimbono yakhe. * Kodwa ke, uAristotle yena wayeqonda ukuba ulwazi ngesayensi luyanda ibe kufuneka lumane luhlaziywa. Akwaba neecawa zazibona ngendlela efanayo!

^ isiqe. 11 Ukuze ufunde ngakumbi ngomxholo othi “UGalileo Uxabana Necawa,” jonga uVukani! wesiNgesi ka-Aprili 22, 2003.