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UVUKANI! NO. 3 2016

 AMAQHAWE AMANDULO

UIgnaz Semmelweis

UIgnaz Semmelweis

NANGONA uIgnaz Semmelweis engengomntu waziwayo, umsebenzi awawenzayo uzinceda kakhulu iintsapho zale mihla. Wazalelwa eBuda (ngoku eyiBudapest), eHungary, waza wafumana isidanga sakhe sezamayeza kwiYunivesithi yaseVienna ngo-1844. Ekuthatheni kwakhe iintambo njengesekela loprofesa owayekwiFirst Maternity Clinic yeSibhedlele SaseVienna ngo-1846, uSemmelweis wajongana nento emanyumnyezi—amabhinqa angaphezu kwe-13 pesenti abeleka apho ayebulawa sisifo esibizwa ngokuba yichildbed fever.

Baninzi abantu ababefunisela ngonobangela wesi sifo, kodwa akukho namnye owayicombululayo le ngxubakaxaka. Yonke imizamo yokuhlisa inani labantu abafayo yawa phantsi. Ekhathazwa kukubona oomama abaninzi besifa kabuhlungu, uSemmelweis wagqiba kwelokuba afumane unobangela wesi sifo aze asithintele.

Isibhedlele awayesebenza kuso uSemmelweis sasineeklini ezimbini zokubelekisa, ibe okubangel’ umdla kukuba kule yokuqala ikliniki babebaninzi oomama abafayo kunakule yesibini. Ekuphela komahluko owawukho kwezi kliniki zimbini yayikukuba kule yokuqala kwakufundiswa oogqirha kuze kweyesibini kufundiswe ababelekisi. Yintoni ke eyayibangela ukuba kubekho umahluko ongaka kumanani abantu abafa kwezi kliniki? Xa wayejikajikana nalo mbuzo, uSemmelweis wacokisa ukukhangela oonobangela besi sifo, kodwa tu ukuvela unobangela.

Ebutsheni buka-1847, uSemmelweis wawubhaqa umkhondo. Umhlobo wakhe awayesebenza naye uJakob Kolletschka wayebulelwe yityhefu eyangena enxebeni lakhe emva kokuba ezisike xa wayeqhaqha isidumbu ephanda unobangela wokufa. Njengoko wayefunda ingxelo yonobangela wokufa kukaKolletschka, uSemmelweis wafumanisa ukuba zikho izinto eyayifana ngazo neengxelo zabantu ababebulewe yichildbed fever. Ngenxa yoko, uSemmelweis wacinga ukuba mhlawumbi yityhefu esuka kwizidumbu eyayisosulela izigulana  ezikhulelweyo, ize idale ichildbed fever. Oogqirha kunye nabo babefundela unyango, ababedla ngokuqhaqha izidumbu ngaphambi kokuba baye kwiwadi yabeze kubeleka, bengaqondi baye bosulela amabhinqa akhulelweyo ebudeni bokuwaxilonga nasebudeni bokuwabelekisa! Kwiwadi yesibini inani labafayo laliphantsi kuba abantu abafundela ukubelekisa babengasebenzi ngezidumbu.

Ngoko nangoko uSemmelweis waba ngqongqo waza wayalela ukuba kuhlanjwe izandla, nto leyo eyayiquka ukukhuculwa kweentsholongwane ezandleni kusetyenziswa umxube wekalika neklorin (chlorinated lime) ngaphambi kokuba kuxilongwe amabhinqa akhulelweyo. Iziphumo zothusa: inani lamabhinqa afayo lehla lisuka ku-18,27 pesenti ngoAprili laya kutsho ku-0,19 pesenti ekupheleni kwaloo nyaka.

“Le mfundiso yam ikho ngenjongo yokususa isikizi kwizibhedlele zokubelekisa, ukusindisa umfazi abuyele endodeni yakhe nomama abuyele kumntwana wakhe.”—UIgnaz Semmelweis

Le mpumelelo kaSemmelweis ayizange ihle kamnandi kwabanye abantu. Iziphumo awazifumanayo zazingqubana nendlela umphathi wakhe awayeyijonga ngayo le nto, kwaye lo mphathi wayecatshukiswa nayinkani kaSemmelweis. Ekugqibeleni uSemmelweis waphelelwa ngumsebenzi eVienna waza wabuyela eHungary. Akufika apho wabamba iintambo kwisebe elijongene nabakhulelweyo kwiSt. Rochus Hospital yasePest, ibe iindlela zakhe zabangela ukuba inani labafayo lehle liye kutsho ngaphantsi kwe-1 pesenti.

Ngo-1861, uSemmelweis wapapasha incwadi yakhe ethi, The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever. Ngelishwa, izinto awazifumanisayo azizange zigqalwe njengezibalulekileyo de kwadlula iminyaka. Kwelinye icala, baninzi abantu abafayo ababenokuhlangulwa.

USemmelweis waqinisekisa ukuba kusetyenziswa imigaqo yococeko kwiindawo zonyango ezaziphantsi kwakhe.—Painting by Robert Thom

Ekugqibeleni uSemmelweis wade wamkelwa njengeqhawe elafaka isandla kwindlela yokukhusela ukosuleleka ziintsholongwane esetyenziswa ngoku. Umsebenzi wakhe wenza kwacaca ukuba zikho izinto ezingabonakaliyo ngeliso lenyama ezinokudala izifo. Uyinxalenye yembali yengcamango yokuba kukho izinto ekuthiwa ziintsholongwane ezidala izifo, eye yagqalwa “njengelona galelo likhulu kwezamayeza nakwezonyango.” Okubangel’ umdla kukuba kwiminyaka engaphezu kwe-3 000 eyadlulayo, uMthetho kaMoses, owathi kamva waqukwa eBhayibhileni, wawusele uchaza ukuba zifanele ziphathwe njani na izidumbu.