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IMBONISELO NO. 6 2016

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Wayefuna Nabantu Abaqhelekileyo Balazi ILizwi LikaThixo

ULefèvre d’Étaples—Wayefuna Nabantu Abaqhelekileyo Balazi ILizwi LikaThixo

KWAKUNGENTSASA yangeCawa ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo-1520. Abemi baseMeaux, idolophana ekufuphi naseParis, zange bayikholelwe into ababeyiva ecaweni. Babemamele kufundwa iincwadi zeVangeli ngolwimi lwabo lweenkobe, isiFrentshi endaweni yesiLatini!

Umguquleli weBhayibhile owabangela oku, uJacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (ngesiLatini, nguJacobus Faber Stapulensis), kamva wabhalela oyena mhlobo wakhe amthandayo esithi: “Soz’ uyithelekelele indlela uThixo abashukumisa ngayo abantu abaqhelekileyo kwezinye iindawo ukuba bamkele iLizwi lakhe.”

Ngelo xesha, iCawa yamaKatolika nabefundisi bezakwalizwi baseParis babengafuni nokuyibona into yokusetyenziswa kweenguqulelo zeBhayibhile kubantu abaqhelekileyo. Yintoni ke eyabangela ukuba uLefèvre aguqulele iBhayibhile ngesiFrentshi? Wabanceda njani abantu abaqhelekileyo balazi iLizwi likaThixo?

WAFUNA EYONA NTO ITHETHWA ZIZIBHALO

Ngaphambi kokuba abe ngumguquleli weBhayibhile, uLefèvre wayezimisele ukubuyisela eyona nto yayithethwa ziincwadi zamandulo zefilosofi nezakwalizwi. Waphawula ukuba imibhalo yamandulo yonakaliswa ziinguqulelo ezilahlekisayo zeminyaka eyadlulayo neempazamo zazo. Xa wayephanda ngeyona nto yayithethwa yimibhalo yamandulo, waqalisa ukufundisisa iBhayibhile eqhelekileyo yeCawa yamaKatolika, iVulgate yesiLatini.

Ukufundisisa kwakhe iZibhalo kwabangela ukuba afikelele kwisigqibo sokuba “ukufundisisa iLizwi likaThixo kukodwa nje kunika ithemba . . . Ulonwabo olungenakuthelekiswa nanto.” Ngenxa yoko, uLefèvre wayeka ukufunda ifilosofi waza wazinikela ekuguquleleni iBhayibhile.

Ngo-1509, uLefèvre wapapasha uphando alwenzileyo ngeenguqulelo zesiLatini ezintlanu zencwadi yeeNdumiso, * kuquka nezinto azilungisileyo kwiVulgate. Ngokwahlukileyo kubafundisi bezakwalizwi ababekho ngelo xesha, wazimisela ukufumanisa “eyona nto” yayithethwa ziivesi zeBhayibhile. Indlela awayezitolika ngayo iZibhalo yaba nempembelelo enkulu kubaphengululi beBhayibhile.—Funda ibhokisi ethi “ Indlela ULefèvre Awamnceda Ngayo UMartin Luther.”

Isicangca semixholo ekwiiNdumiso ethetha ngoThixo, esikwiFivefold Psalter, Uhlelo luka-1513

ULefèvre owazalelwa kwiCawa yamaKatolika wayeqinisekile ukuba icawa yayinokutshintsha kuphela xa abantu abaqhelekileyo babezifundiswe kakuhle iZibhalo. Kodwa iZibhalo zaziza kubanceda njani abo bantu xa zazibhalwe ngesiLatini?

INGUQULELO YEBHAYIBHILE EFUMANEKA KUBO BONKE

Intshayelelo yeencwadi zeVangeli yabonisa umnqweno kaLefèvre wokwenza iBhayibhile ifumaneke kubo bonke ngolwimi lwabo lwenkobe

Indlela uLefèvre awayelithanda ngayo iLizwi likaThixo yabangela ukuba azimisele ukuba lifumaneke kubantu abaninzi. Ukuze yenzeke loo nto, ngoJuni 1523, wapapasha imiqulu emibini emincinane yeencwadi zeVangeli ezaziguqulelwe ngesiFrentshi.  Le miqulu mincinane, eyayinexabiso elincinane kakhulu kuneBhayibhile eqhelekileyo, yabangela ukuba nabantu abangathathi-ntweni babe neBhayibhile.

Ngoko nangoko abantu abaqhelekileyo bazamkela ngezandl’ ezishushu ezo Bhayibhile. Amadoda nabafazi, bonke babenomdla wokufunda amazwi kaYesu ngolwimi lwabo lweenkobe, kangangokuba eziyi-1 200 ezaprintwayo ekuqaleni zaphela kwiinyanga nje ezimbalwa.

WAYIMELA IBHAYIBHILE

Kwintshayelelo yeencwadi zeVangeli, uLefèvre wathi uziguqulele ngesiFrentshi ukuze amarhamente “angabantu abaqhelekileyo” “aqiniseke ngenyaniso ekwezi ncwadi ngokufanayo nabo baneeBhayibhile zesiLatini.” Yintoni eyayibangela ukuba uLefèvre abe nomdla kangaka wokunceda abantu abaqhelekileyo bazi eyona nto ifundiswa yiBhayibhile?

Wayeyazi kakuhle ukuba iimfundiso zabantu nefilosofi zibalahlekisile abantu beCawa yamaKatolika. (Marko 7:7; Kolose 2:8) Wayeqinisekile ukuba lalifikile ixesha lokuba kushunyayelwe inyaniso ekwiincwadi zeVangeli “kulo lonke ihlabathi, ukuze abantu bangaphindi balahlekiswe ziimfundiso zabantu.”

Wayezimisele nokubhenca ubuxoki babantu ababengafuni nokuyibona inguqulelo yeBhayibhile yesiFrentshi. Wachaza indlela abangabahanahanisi ngayo esithi: “Baza kubafundisa njani [abantu]  ukuba bazigcine zonke izinto ezazithethwe nguYesu Kristu ukuba abanamdla wokuba umntu ongathathi-ntweni azibonele aze azifundele iVangeli kaThixo ngolwimi lweenkobe?”Roma 10:14.

Ayothusi ke into yokuba abezakwalizwi kwiYunivesithi yaseParis, iSorbonne, bakhawuleze bafune ukumval’ umlomo uLefèvre. NgoAgasti 1523, zange bafune nokuzibona iinguqulelo zolwimi lwenkobe nengcaciso eyayikuzo, besithi “ziyingozi eCaweni.” Ukuba wayengangenelelanga uKumkani wamaFrentshi, uFrancis I, uLefèvre kwakuza kuthiwa ngumwexuki.

LO MGUQULELI “UTHE CWAKA” WAWUGQIBA UMSEBENZI WAKHE

ULefèvre akazange avumele iingxoxo ezitshis’ ibunzi ngomsebenzi wakhe ukuba zimphazamise ekuguquleleni iBhayibhile. Ngo-1524, emva kokuba egqibe iZibhalo zesiGrike (ezibizwa ngokuba yiTestamente Entsha), wakhulula inguqulelo yesiFrentshi yeeNdumiso ukuze amakholwa akwazi ukuthandaza “ngokuzinikela nangentliziyo yawo yonke.”

Ngoko nangoko, abezakwalizwi eSorbonne bahlolisisa loo nguqulelo kaLefèvre. Bengalibazisanga bayalela ukuba ezi Zibhalo zesiGrike zitshiswe phambi kwamehlo abantu, baze bathi eminye imibhalo “ihambisana neemfundiso zikaLuther.” Xa bathi makathethelele izinto azibhalileyo, uLefèvre “wathi cwaka” waza wabalekela eStrasbourg. Apho wafika waqhubeka eguqulela iBhayibhile ngokufihlakeleyo. Nakuba abanye babesithi akanamqolo, wayeqonda ukuba le yeyona ndlela ilungileyo yokuphendula abo babengazixabisanga ‘iiperile’ eziseBhayibhileni.Mateyu 7:6.

Ngasekupheleni konyaka ebalekile, uKumkani uFrancis I wakhetha uLefèvre ukuba afundise unyana wakhe owayeneminyaka emine, uCharles. Lo msebenzi wamnika ixesha elininzi lokuba agqibe ukuguqulela iBhayibhile. Loo Bhayibhile yaprintwa ngo-1530, kummandla ongaphandle kweFrance, eAntwerp, ngemvume kaKumkani uCharles V. *

ITHEMBA ELIKHULU NOKUPHOXEKA

Ubomi bakhe bonke, uLefèvre wayenethemba lokuba icawa iza kuziyeka iimfundiso zabantu ize ibuyele kulwazi oluchanileyo lweZibhalo. Wayekholelwa ekubeni “ilungelo okanye umsebenzi womKristu ngamnye kukuzifundela iBhayibhile.” Yiloo nto wayesebenza nzima kangaka ukuze iBhayibhile ifumaneke kubo bonke. Nangona umnqweno wakhe wokubona icawa itshintsha ungazange wenzeke, imisebenzi yakhe kusathethwa ngayo nanamhlanje—wanceda abantu abaqhelekileyo balazi iLizwi likaThixo.

^ isiqe. 21 Kwiminyaka emihlanu emva koko, ngo-1535, umguquleli wesiFrentshi uOlivétan, wakhulula eyakhe inguqulelo yeBhayibhile awayeyibhale ngokusuka kwezeelwimi zamandulo. Xa wayeguqulela iZibhalo zesiGrike, waxhomekeka kakhulu kwiinguqulelo zikaLefèvre.

Funda Okungakumbi

Ngaba IBhayibhile Ithetha Inyani?

Ukuba iBhayibhile yabhalwa nguThixo, ifanele yahluke kuzo zonke iincwadi.