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AmaNgqina KaYehova

IsiXhosa

IMboniselo  |  No. 4 2017

UElias Hutter Nenguqulelo Yakhe YesiHebhere Ebangel’ Umdla

UElias Hutter Nenguqulelo Yakhe YesiHebhere Ebangel’ Umdla

UNGAKWAZI ukufunda iBhayibhile yesiHebhere? Mhlawumbi uthi hayi. Kusenokwenzeka ukuba zange khe wayibona kwaukuyibona. Noko ke, xa unokufunda ngoElias Hutter owayephila kwiminyaka yoo-1500 neenguqulelo zakhe ezimbini zesiHebhere ungatsho uyithande kakhulu iBhayibhile yakho YeZibhalo Ezingcwele.

UElias Hutter wazalwa ngo-1553 kwidolophu encinane eGörlitz, ekufutshane nomda owohlula iJamani kwiPoland neCzech Republic. Wafunda iilwimi zaseMpuma kwiYunivesithi iLutheran, eJena. Xa wayeneminyaka nje eyi-24, waba nguprofesa wesiHebhere eLeipzig. Ekubeni wayesisifundiswa, wazenzela esakhe isikolo eNuremberg apho abafundi babefunda isiHebhere, isiGrike, isiLatin, nesiJamani kwisithuba nje seminyaka emine. Loo nto yayingenziwa kwezinye izikolo okanye iiyunivesithi.

“INDLELA EYAYISEMGQABINI NGAYO LE NGUQULELO”

Iphepha lokuqala leBhayibhile kaHutter yesiHebhere ka-1587

Ngo-1587, uHutter wavelisa inguqulelo yesiHebhere namhlanje eyaziwa ngokuba yiTestamente Endala. Umxholo wayo othi, Derekh ha-Kodesh, owawuthathwe kwincwadi kaIsaya 35:8, uthetha ukuthi ‘iNdlela Yobungcwele.’ Amazwi athi “yonke into ekuyo ibonisa indlela esemagqabini ngayo le nguqulelo” abangelwa yindlela amahle ngayo amagama ebhalwe ngawo. Eyona nto yayibangela ukuba le nguqulelo ithandwe kakhulu kukuba abafundi babeyisebenzisa ukuze bafunde isiHebhere.

Ukuze ubone ukuba yayiluncedo kangakanani iBhayibhile yesiHebhere kaHutter, phawula iingxaki umfundi awayesiba nazo xa ezama ukufunda iBhayibhile eqhelekileyo yesiHebhere. Okokuqala nje, ibhalwe ngoonobumba abangaqhelekanga, okwesibini izimaphambili nezimamva zenza kube nzima ukubona ukuba belisithini kanye kanye elo gama ekuqaleni. Ngokomzekelo, cinga ngegama lesiHebhere elithi נפשׁ (eliguqulelwe ngokuthi ne’phesh), elithetha “umphefumlo.” KuHezekile 18:4, linesimaphambili esithi ה (ha), esithetha igama lesiNgesi u-“the,” lize libizwe ngokuthi הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh), okanye “the soul [umphefumlo].” Kumntu ongaqhelananga nesiHebhere, igama elithi הנפשׁ (han·ne’phesh) linokubonakala lahluke mpela kwelithi נפשׁ (ne’phesh).

Ukuze ancede abafundi, uHutter wasebenzisa indlela echuliweyo yokuprinta. Abanye oonobumba besiHebhere wayebaprinta ngqindilili. Isiqu segama ngalinye sasiba ngqindilili. Izimaphambili  nezimamva wayezibhala ngendlela eqhelekileyo. Le ndlela yokubhala yenza kwalula ngabafundi ukubona igama elisisiqu lesiHebhere, ibanceda nokuba balufunde lula ulwimi. INguqulelo Yehlabathi Elitsha YeZibhalo Ezingcwele—Eneembekiselo isebenzise le ndlela kwimibhalo yayo esemazantsi. * Isiqu sibhalwe ngqindilili ngoxa isimaphambili nesimamva zibhalwe ngendlela eqhelekileyo. Iindawo ezibhalwe ngokucacileyo kwimizekelo ekwisiqendu esingasentla ibonisa indlela abasetyenziswe ngayo oonobumba beBhayibhile yesiHebhere kaHutter kuHezekile 18:4, ibe neBhayibhile Eneembekiselo isebenzise yona kumbhalo osemazantsi wesi sibhalo.

INGUQULELO YESIHEBHERE “YETESTAMENTE ENTSHA”

UHutter waprinta nenye ebizwa ngokuba yiTestamente Entsha, eyayibhalwe ngeelwimi eziyi-12. Le nguqulelo ibizwa ngokuba yiNuremberg Polyglot yapapashwa eNuremberg ngo-1599. UHutter wayefuna ukongeza nenguqulelo yesiHebhere yeZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike. Kodwa wathi nokuba “wayenokusebenzisa intywenka yemali” kuloo nguqulelo, wayeza kuba udlala ngexesha lakhe. * Ngoko wagqiba ekubeni ayiguqulele ngokwakhe. Lo msebenzi wawugqiba kwisithuba nje esingangonyaka, kuba wabeka zonke ezinye izinto ecaleni, wajongana nawo nje kuphela!

Yayinjani inguqulelo yesiHebhere kaHutter yeZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike? Umphengululi wesiHebhere weminyaka yoo-1800 uFranz Delitzsch wabhala wathi: “Inguqulelo kaHutter yesiHebhere yabangela ukuba abantu baluqonde ulwimi ababengalwazi ibe isabanceda nangoku abanye kuba wakwazi ukukhetha amagama atsho ngqo emxholweni.”

YAQHUBEKA ILUNCEDO

UHutter zange abe sisityebi ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kuba iinguqulelo zakhe zange zithengwe kangako. Sekunjalo, umsebenzi wakhe uye wanefuthe. Ngokomzekelo, iTestamente Entsha awayeyiguqulele ngesiHebhere yaye yahlaziywa yaza yaphinda yaprintwa ngo-1661 nguWilliam Robertson ibe ngo-1798 waphinda wenza okufanayo uRichard Caddick. Xa wayeguqulela ngokusuka kwisiGrike, amagama afana nelithi Kyʹri·os (Nkosi) nelithi The·osʹ (Thixo) uHutter wawaguqulela ngokuchanileyo ngokuthi “Yehova” (יהוה, JHVH) xa ecatshulwe kwiZibhalo zesiHebhere okanye apho wayebona ebhekisela kuYehova khona. Le nto ibangela umdla kuba nangona iinguqulelo ezininzi zeTestamente Entsha zingalisebenzisi igama likaThixo, yona inguqulelo kaHutter iyalisebenzisa ibe yongeza ubungqina obungakumbi bokuba libuyiselwe kwiZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike.

Xa uphinda ubona igama likaThixo, uYehova, kwiZibhalo ZamaKristu ZesiGrike okanye ujonga umbhalo osemazantsi kwiBhayibhile Eneembekiselo, cinga ngomsebenzi owenziwa nguElias Hutter neenguqulelo zakhe zesiHebhere ezibangel’ umdla.

^ isiqe. 7 Funda umbhalo osemazantsi wesibini kaHezekile 18:4 neSihlomelo 3B kwiBhayibhile Eneembekiselo.

^ isiqe. 9 Ngokuqinisekileyo bakho abaphengululi ababesele beyiguqulele iTestamente Entsha ngesiHebhere. Omnye wabo yayinguSimon Atoumanos, imonki yaseByzantine, pha ngoo-1360. Ukanti omnye yayinguOswald Schreckenfuchs, umphengululi waseJamani owayiguqulela malunga no-1565. Ezi nguqulelo zange zide zipapashwe ibe zalahleka.