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UVUKANI! SEPTEMBA 2015

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

Herodotus

Herodotus

KWAKUPHILWA njani kumawaka eminyaka eyadlulayo? Zazinjani izithethe zabantu baloo mihla? Ukuphanda ngezinto zakudala kungasityebisela, kodwa akusichazeli yonk’ into. Ukuze sazi indlela ababecinga ngayo abantu bamhla mnene, singancedwa ziincwadi zendoda eyayiphila ngelo xesha, neyayibhala phantsi le mbali. Le ndoda yayiphila kwiminyaka emalunga neyi-2 400 eyadlulayo. Igama layo yayinguHerodotus, umbhali mbali ongumGrike owayephila kwisithuba seminyaka engamakhulu amahlanu ngaphambi kokuzalwa kukaKristu. Umxholo wencwadi yakhe wawusithi The Histories.

UHerodotus wawuqalisa umsebenzi wakhe ngokubhala ngezizathu zokuba amaGrike alwe iimfazwe, ngokukodwa ukuhlaselwa kwamaPersi ngonyaka ka-490 noka-480 ngaphambi kokuzalwa kukaYesu, okwenzeka uHerodotus eseyinkwenkwana. Akazange abhale ngokuhlaselwa kwamaPersi kuphela, kodwa wabhala nangamanye amazwe awachatshazelwa lolo hlaselo.

OKUNGAKUMBI KUNEMBALI

UHerodotus wayelichule lokubalisa. Wayecokisa xa ebhala, equka zonke iinkcukacha acinga ukuba ziyafuneka ukuze liphelele ibali lakhe. Umsebenzi wakhe uqhwatyelw’ izandla kuba inkcazelo awayeyibhala wayengayifumani kwiingxelo zembali zikaRhulumente ezingafane zibekho ngelo xesha.

Mandulo, bambalwa abantu ababebhala imbali, ubukhulu becala kwakubhalwa izenzo zobuqhawe kumatye ezikhumbuzo. UHerodotus wayexhomekeke ekuboneni, kumabali nakubungqina babantu abazaziyo ezo ziganeko afuna ukubhala ngazo. Ukuze uHerodotus afumane inkcazelo, kwakufuneka ahambe kanobom. Wakhulela kwiphondo lamaGrike iHalicarnassus (elibizwa ngokuba yiBodrum ngoku, emazantsi eTurkey) ibe watyelela iindawo ezininzi naseGrisi.

Ukuze uHerodotus afumane inkcazelo, kwakufuneka ahambe kanobom

 Waya ngasentla kuLwandle Olumnyama naseScythia, ekwilizwe laseUkraine namhlanje, waza waya ePalestina naseMntla Yiputa. Empuma, wahamba waya kuthi ga eBhabhiloni, waza wagqibezela entshona, kwiphondo lamaGrike elisemazantsi Itali ngoku. Naphi na apho aya khona, wayebukela aze abuze nokubuza, ngaloo ndlela wayefumana inkcazelo kwabona bantu babonakala bethembekile.

UKUCHANA KWEMBALI KAHERODOTUS

Isiqwenga sePapyrus esikwincwadi ethi-The Histories

Ichane kangakanani inkcazelo ebhalwe nguHerodotus? Malunga namazwe awawatyelelayo nezinto awazibonayo, iingxelo zakhe zamkelwa njengezichanileyo. Indlela azichaza ngayo izinto ezingaziwayo ngamaGrike, njengokungcwatywa kweekumkani eScythia okanye ukuqholwa kwezidumbu ngamaYiputa kuyavisisana nezinto eziye zafunyanwa ngabembi bezinto zakudala. Kuthiwa inkcazelo awayibhalayo ngeYiputa “iyodlula lee ngokubaluleka yonke into eyabhalwayo mandulo ngeli lizwe.”

Ubukhulu becala, kwakufuneka uHerodotus axhomekeke kubungqina obungaqinisekanga. Ukongezelela koku, abantu bexesha lakhe babekholelwa ukuba oothixo babahedeni bayangenelela kwimicimbi yabantu. Ngenxa yoko, asiyiyo yonke into awayibhalayo evisisanayo nemilinganiselo yembali yale mihla. Sekunjalo, uHerodotus wazama ukwahlula amabali ayinyani kwangeyonyani. Watsho phandle ukuba ezinye izinto awayezixelelwa wayengazikholelwa. Wayesenza izigqibo emva kokuba eyihluzile waza wayithelekisa imithombo awayeyisebenzisa.

Incwadi ethi The Histories ifanele ukuba yayiyeyona nto ibalulekileyo kuHerodotus. Xa ucinga nje ngemithombo awayenayo, wenza umsebenzi osemagqabini.