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UVUKANI! AGASTI 2015

 INQAKU ELINGUMXHOLO

Iiseli Zakho—Ilayibrari Ephilayo!

Iiseli Zakho—Ilayibrari Ephilayo!

NGO-1953 izazi zebhayoloji uJames Watson noFrancis Crick bapapasha imiphumo yophando lwabo olwayitshintsha mpela indlela esibujonga ngayo ubomi. Bafumanisa ukuba iDNA imile okweleli yentambo ejijekileyo. * Le khemikhali ifana nomsonto, isembindini weseli ibe inenkcazelo eyenza iseli ifane nethala leencwadi eliphilayo. Lo mmangaliso wafunyanwa ngala madoda waba negalelo elikhulu kwibhayoloji! Kodwa yintoni umsebenzi wenkcazelo ekwiseli? Phofu ke, ifike njani apho?

 ISIZATHU SOKUBA IISELI ZIYIDINGA LE NKCAZELO

Wakha wazibuza ukuba kwenzeka njani ukuba imbewu ibe ngumthi okanye iqanda elidibene namadlozi libe ngumntu? Okanye wazibuza ukuba kwenzeka njani ukuba ufuze umzali wakho? Impendulo yale mibuzo ikwinkcazelo ekwiDNA.

Phantse zonke iiseli zineDNA ngaphakathi kuzo enobuceducedu obuninzi nemile okweleli ende ejijekileyo. Kwiseli nganye, anokuba ziibhiliyoni ezintathu amanqwanqwa ekhemikhali akha iDNA. Zine iikhemikhali ezakha amanqwanqwa eDNA, kodwa nqwanqwa ngalinye lenziwa ngezimbini. Ezi khemikhali zithiywe ngaba nobumba bane—uA, C, G, noT. * Ngo-1957 uCrick wathi yindlela abame ngayo aba nobumba enikezela ngenkcazelo. Kwiminyaka yoo-1960, abantu baqalisa ukuqonda intsingiselo yayo.

Nayiphi na inkcazelo, enoba yimifanekiso, umculo okanye amagama, inokugcinwa ngeendlela ezahlukahlukeneyo. Ngokomzekelo, iikhompyutha zisebenzisa amanani ukugcina inkcazelo. Zona iiseli zisebenzisa iDNA. Inkcazelo ekwiDNA isetyenziswa xa iiseli ziziphindaphinda naxa kudluliselwa imizila yemfuza.

Iiseli ziyisebenzisa njani le nkcazelo? Masikuzekelise oku ngokufanisa iDNA neeresipi. Iresipi yokubhaka isenokuvelisa ikeyiki, kodwa yona iresipi yeDNA isenokuvelisa ikhaphetshu okanye inkomo. Noko ke, kwiiseli eziphilayo yonke le nto iyazenzekela, yiloo nto ebangela ukuba zintsonkothe kangaka.

Inkcazelo ekwiseli yentsholongwane inokuzalisa incwadi enamaphepha ayi-1 000

 Inkcazelo ekwiDNA iyagcinwa ize isetyenziswe xa kufuneka kuveliswe iiseli ezintsha, naxa kudluliselwa imizila yemfuza. Ingakanani inkcazelo ekumsonto nje omnye weDNA? Khawucinge nje ngesidalwa esincinane kakhulu, intsholongwane. Usosayensi waseJamani, uBernd-Olaf Küppers wathi: “Ukuba inkcazelo ekwiDNA yentsholongwane ibinokubhalwa ngolwimi lwabantu, ibinokuzalisa incwadi enamaphepha aliwaka.” Kungeso sizathu le nto uprofesa uDavid Deamer wathi: “Ukuntsonkotha kwesona sidalwa sakhe sasincinane, kukushiya ubamb’ ongezantsi.” Ingakanani yona inkcazelo ekuyo yonke iDNA ekwiseli yomntu? UKüppers uthi: “Inokuzalisa ilayibrari enamawakawaka emiqulu yeencwadi.”

“IBHALWE NGENDLELA ESINOKUYIQONDA”

UKüppers uthi inkcazelo ekwiDNA inokufaniswa nolwimi lwabantu. Njengolwimi lwabantu, nayo inemithetho elawula indlela amagama amele alandelelaniswe ngayo.

Amagama nezivakalisi ezikwiDNA zifana neresipi echaza indlela ezimele zakhiwe ngayo iiproteni neeseli ezibumba umzimba. Ngokomzekelo, le resipi isenokuchaza indlela ezimele zakhiwe ngayo iiseli zamathambo, zezihlunu, zemithambo-luvo nezolusu. Isazi sebhayoloji uRichard Dawkins sathi: “Inkcazelo ekumsonto weDNA yakhiwe ziikhemikhali ezimelwa ngoonobumba, khemikhali nganye inonobumba wayo. Iyamangalisa into yokuba yonke le nkcazelo ibhalwe ngendlela esinokuyiqonda.”

Xa wayethandaza kuThixo, umbhali weBhayibhile uDavide wathi: “Amehlo akho andibona ndiseyimbumba, yaye zonke iinxalenye zam zazibhalwe phantsi encwadini yakho.” (INdumiso 139:16) Nangona lo yayingumbongo, uDavide wayechan’ ucwethe, njengokuba besoloko benjalo ababhali beBhayibhile. Babengaphenjelelwa ziintsomi ezazithandwa ngabantu bexesha labo.—2 Samuweli 23:1, 2; 2 Timoti 3:16.

Kwenzeka njani ukuba umntwana afuze abazali bakhe?

 IDNA IYIFUMANA NJANI LE NKCAZELO?

Njengesiqhelo, xa oososayensi becacisa into ethile, badla ngokushiya imibuzo emininzi ingaphendulekanga. Kwaba njalo ke naxa kwafunyanwa iDNA. Emva kokwazi ukuba iDNA inenkcazelo, abanye babuza, ‘Iyifumana phi le nkcazelo?’ Kaloku akakho umntu owayekho xa kwakusenziwa iDNA yokuqala. Ngoko ke, kufuneka siyikhangele ngokwethu impendulo. Kodwa loo nto ayithethi kuthi kufuneka siqashele. Khawucinge nje ngale mizekelo.

  • Ngo-1999 ePakistan kwafunyanwa iziqwenga zodongwe ezikrolwe oonobumba abangaqhelekanga. Akwaziwa ukuba bathetha ukuthini. Nangona kunjalo, ekuqinisekwe ngako kukuba babhalwa ngumntu.

  • Emva kweminyaka embalwa uWatson noCrick befumene iDNA, abanye oososayensi ababini benza amalinge okukhangela ukuba azikho na ezinye izidalwa ezikrelekrele eziphila komnye ummandla.

Iyintoni ke ingongoma? Xa abantu befumana inkcazelo badla ngokuqonda ukuba ivela kumntu okrelekrele. Kulula ukufikelela kweso sigqibo enoba babengekho xa yayisenziwa. Kodwa xa abantu bafumana eyona nkcazelo intsonkothileyo, ekwiDNA, bakhetha ukugqiba kwelokuba yazivelela. Ngaba iyavakala ke loo nto? Ngaba abathethi beziphikisa? Ngaba iyangqinelana nesayensi? Abanye oososayensi abaphum’ izandla abavumi kwaphela. Baquka uGqirha uGene Hwang noProfesa uYan-Der Hsuuw. * Khawuve ukuba bathini abo sosayensi.

UGqirha uGene Hwang uphanda ngendlela eyakhiwe ngayo inkcazelo ekwiDNA. Ngaphambili wayekholelwa ukuba izinto zazivelela, kodwa uphando lwakhe lwayitshintsha yonke loo nto. Uthi: “Ukufunda ngenkcazelo ekwiDNA kundincede ndazi indlela obakhiwe ngayo ubomi, ibe ubulumko boMdali bundishiya ndibamb’ ongezantsi.”

UProfesa uYan-Der Hsuuw uphethe icandelo eliphanda ngeemveku ezingekazalwa kwiNational Pingtung University of Science and Technology yaseTaiwan. Naye wayekholelwa ukuba izinto zazivelela, kwaza oko kwatshintsha emva kophando lwakhe. Xa ethetha ngokuziphindaphinda kweeseli, uthi: “Kufuneka kuveliswe iseli nganye eza kwenza indima yayo, ngexesha elililo. Ziqala ngokuqokelelana zize ekugqibeleni zivelise amalungu omzimba. Ayikho injineli enokukwazi kwaukuyicinga into yokwenza isixhobo esisebenza ngale ndlela? Kodwa indlela emele yakhiwe ngayo imveku engekazalwa ichazwe yonke kwiDNA. Xa ndicinga ngayo yonke le nto, ndiye ndiqonde ukuba nguThixo owadala ubomi.”

UGene Hwang (ekhohlo) noYan-Der Hsuu

 KUTHENI KUBALULEKILE NJE OKU?

Kaloku, ukuba ubomi badalwa nguThixo, nguye ke ofanele azukiswe, kungekhona inkolelo yokuba izinto zazivelela. (ISityhilelo 4:11) Kwakhona, ukuba sadalwa nguThixo osisilumko, umele ukuba wasidala ngenjongo ethile. Ngeyingekho injongo yokuphila ukuba sasuka sazivelela nje. *

Abantu abaninzi banomdla wokufumana iimpendulo eziza kubanelisa. UViktor Frankl, uprofesa wemithambo-luvo nowengqondo wathi: “Eyona nto iphambili ebantwini kukwazi injongo yobomi.” Ngamany’ amazwi, sinomnqweno wokukhonza uThixo, ibe ngesingenawo loo mnqweno ukuba besingadalwanga. Kodwa ukuba sadalwa nguThixo, ngaba usinikile indlela yokwanelisa loo mnqweno?

UYesu Kristu wawuphendula loo mbuzo xa wathi: “Akaphili ngasonka sodwa umntu, uphila ngamazwi onke aphuma emlonyeni kaYehova [uThixo].” (Mateyu 4:4) Amazwi kaYehova aseBhayibhileni aye anceda izigidi zabantu zakwazi ukumkhonza, zatsho zafumana injongo ebomini zaza zanethemba ngekamva. (1 Tesalonika 2:13) Kwanga iBhayibhile ingakunceda nawe. Ngoko sikukhuthaza ukuba uyifunde le ncwadi ikhethekileyo.

^ isiqe. 3 UWatson noCrick bongezelela kwinkcazelo eyayisele iphandwe ngabanye ababephande ngeDNA, emela ideoxyribonucleic acid.—Funda ibhokisi ethi “ I-DNA—Iminyaka Ebalulekileyo.”

^ isiqe. 6 Aba nobumba bamela iadenine, icytosine, iguanine, nethymine.

^ isiqe. 18 Unokufumana amanqaku anodliwano-ndlebe noososayensi abaphum’ izandla kwiWebhsayithi yethu ethi, jw.org. Cofa kwindawo ethi Search, uze ubhale “interview scientist.”

^ isiqe. 22 Umba wendalo nokuzivelela kwezinto uchazwa kakuhle kwincwadana ethi The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking nethi Ngaba Izinto Eziphilayo Zadalwa? ezifumaneka kwiWebhsayithi yethu ethi www.jw.org.