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UVukani!  |  Juni 2015

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

UGalileo

UGalileo

Phakathi kweminyaka yee-1300 neyee-1500, oososayensi neentandabulumko zaseYurophu zafumanisa izinto ngendalo ezazingqubana neemfundiso zeCawa yamaKatolika. Omnye wawo yayinguGalileo Galilei.

NGAPHAMBI kwexesha likaGalileo, abantu abaninzi babekholelwa ukuba ilanga, iiplanethi neenkwenkwezi zijikeleza umhlaba. Ibe leyo yayiyenye yeemfundiso eziphambili zeCawa yamaKatolika.

Nangona kwakunjalo, esebenzisa iteleskopu, uGalileo wafumana ubungqina obabohluke mpela kwiinkolelo zesayensi ezazikho ngelo xesha. Ngokomzekelo, xa wabona amabala kwilanga, waqonda ukuba lijikeleza ndaweni nye. Nakuba ubungqina obunjengobu banceda abantu bazi ngakumbi ngendalo, babangela impixwano phakathi kukaGalileo neCawa yamaKatolika.

ISAYENSI NONQULO

Kumashumi eminyaka ngaphambili, isazi seenkwenkwezi sasePoland uNicolaus Copernicus, sathi umhlaba ujikeleza ilanga. UGalileo wafunda iincwadi ezabhalwa nguCopernicus ezithetha ngokujikeleza kwendalo esemajukujukwini, waza waqokelela ubungqina obuvumelana noCopernicus. Ekuqaleni uGalileo wayemadolw’ anzima ukupapasha ubungqina awabufumanayo, kuba esoyika ukwenziwa intlekisa. Kodwa wabona ukuba ayikho eny’ indlela, umele abupapashe. Abanye  oososayensi babesithi uqhway’ udushe, ibe kungekudala nabefundisi baqalisa ukumhlasela kwiintshumayelo zabo.

Ngo-1616, uMfundisi uBellarmine, “owayekhokela kweza kwalizwi ngelo xesha,” wachazela uGalileo ngomyalelo omtsha waseKatolika owalela ukusasazwa kweenkolelo zikaCopernicus. Lo mfundisi wambongoza uGalileo ukuba awuthobele lo myalelo, ibe kangangeminyaka uGalileo akazange atsho ngokuphandle ukuba umhlaba ujikeleza ilanga.

Ngo-1623 umhlobo kaGalileo, uPopu Urban VIII, wenziwa upopu. Waza ngo-1624 uGalileo wamcela ukuba awushenxise umyalelo owamiselwa ngo-1616. Endaweni yokwenza oko, lo Popu wasuka wabongoza uGalileo ukuba acacise iinkolelo eziphikisanayo zikaCopernicus nezika-Aristotle, kodwa yena angathathi cala.

Kamva, uGalileo wabhala incwadi ethi Dialogue on the Great World Systems. Nangona upopu wayemyalele ukuba angathathi cala, kwincwadi yakhe wayevakala ukuba uxhasa iinkolelo zikaCopernicus. Kungekudala, iintshaba zikaGalileo zathi incwadi yakhe imenza intlekisa upopu. UGalileo watyholwa ngokuba ngumwexuki waza wasongelwa ngokungcungcuthekiswa, ibe kwanyanzeleka ukuba azilahle iimfundiso zikaCopernicus. Ngo-1633 wagwetywa ukuba avalelwe endlini ibe neencwadi zakhe zavalwa umlomo. UGalileo wafela kwikhaya lakhe eArcetri, kufutshane nedolophu iFlorence, ngoJanuwari 8, 1642.

UPopu John Paul II wavuma ukuba iCawa yamaKatolika yamdlel’ indlala uGalileo

Kangangamakhulu eminyaka, ezinye zeencwadi zikaGalileo bezikade zibalwa phakathi kweencwadi amaKatolika angamele azifunde. Kodwa ke, ngo-1979 le cawa yaphinda yasihlola kwakhona esi sigqibo esenziwa kwiminyaka eyi-300 eyadlulayo. Ekugqibeleni ngo-1992, uPopu John Paul II wavuma ukuba iCawa yamaKatolika yamdlel’ indlala uGalileo.