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UVukani!  |  Matshi 2015

 IMIFANEKISO YAMANDULO

Imiyalelo Eyahlula Ihlabathi Phakathi

Imiyalelo Eyahlula Ihlabathi Phakathi

Emva kokubuya kukaChristopher Columbus kuhambo lwakhe lokuqala lokuya kumazwe aseMerika ngo-1493, ukumkani waseSpeyin nowasePortugal baphikisana ngokuba ngubani oza kuba yingqwayingqwayi kwezorhwebo nakulawulo lwaloo mazwe matsha. ISpeyin yabhenela kupopu uAlexander VI ukuze agwebe kuloo ngxabano.

OOKUMKANI NOOPOPU BOHLULA IHLABATHI

ISpeyin, iPortugal kunye nooPopu babesele bethethile ngokuba iza kuba yekabani imihlaba eyayisandul’ ukufunyanwa. Ngo-1455, uPopu Nicholas V wanika amaPhuthukezi ilungelo lokuya kuhlola amazwe neziqithi ezikunxweme lweAtlantiki eAfrika, nokuze athathele kuwo naliphi na alifumanayo. Ngo-1479, xa kwasayinwa iSivumelwano saseAlcáçovas, uAfonso V wasePortugal kunye nonyana wakhe iNkosana uJohn banika uFerdinand noIsabella baseSpeyin igunya lokulawula iziQithi zaseCanary. Yona ke iSpeyin yanika amaPhuthukezi igunya lokuba yingqwayingqwayi kwezorhwebo eAfrika negunya lokulawula eAzores, kwiziQithi zeCape Verde naseMadeira. Kwiminyaka emibini emva koko, uPopu Sixtus IV waphinda wasibeka isitampu esi sivumelwano, esithi nayiphi na imihlaba efunyanwa kumzantsi nakwimpuma yeziQithi zeCanary iza kuba yeyamaPhuthukezi.

Noko ke, uJohn, ngoku onguJohn II wasePortugal wabanga iziqithi ezazifunyenwe nguColumbus esithi zezasePortugal. Ookumkani baseSpeyin babetha ngenqindi phantsi besithi unotshe, baza babhenela kupopu omtsha uAlexander VI, becela ilungelo lokuthimba amazwe awayefunyenwe nguColumbus nelokunyanzela abemi bawo ukuba babe ngamaKristu.

Ngokuqhwanyaza nje kweliso, upopu uAlexander VI wawahlula phakathi umhlaba!

UAlexander wakhupha imiyalelo emithathu. Owokuqala wanika iSpeyin igunya lokulawula ngonaphakade imihlaba  emitsha, esithi loo nto uyenze “ngegunya likaThixo uSomandla.” Owesibini, wazoba umgca osuka emntla usiya emzantsi nowawugqitha kwiikhilomitha eziyi-560 kwintshona yeziQithi zeCape Verde. UAlexander wathi yonke imihlaba eyayisele ifunyenwe neyayiseza kufunyanwa kwintshona yaloo mgca yeyeSpeyin. Ngokuqhwanyaza nje kweliso, upopu wawahlula phakathi umhlaba! Umyalelo wakhe wesithathu waba ngathi uvumela iSpeyin ukuba ikhonye empuma de iye kufika naseIndiya. Le nto yamcaphukisa gqitha uKumkani uJohn, kuba kaloku abantu bakhe babesandul’ ukujikela kwincam yeAfrika, nto leyo eyenza amaPhuthukezi akhonya kuLwandle lweIndiya.

ISIVUMELWANO ESITSHA

UJohn wabona ukuba yinkcitha xesha into kaAlexander, * waza wathetha ngqo noFerdinand kunye noIsabella. Umbhali uWilliam Bernstein uthi: “Ookumkani baseSpeyin ababexakeke ngamazwe ababesandul’ ukuwafumana nababesoyika amaPhuthukezi aneengcwangu, balinqakula ngazo zozibini eli thuba lokwenza isivumelwano soxolo.” Ngoko ke, ngo-1494 kwenziwa isivumelwano esathiywa ngedolophu esasenzelwe kuyo, iTordesillas.

ISivumelwano saseTordesillas asizange siwucime umgca ka-Alexander kodwa sawusa kwiikhilomitha eziyi-1 480 ukuya entshona. Ngenxa yoko, kwaba ngathi yonke iAfrika neAsiya zezePortugal, ngoxa wona amazwe aseMerika aba phantsi kweSpeyin. Noko ke, oku kushenxiswa kwalo mgca kwenza ukuba ilizwe elalingekabonwa ngelo xesha nelabizwa ngokuba yiBrazil kamva, libe yinxalenye yomhlaba wamaPhuthukezi.

Imiyalelo eyanika iSpeyin nePortugal igunya lokuhlutha nelokulwela imihlaba eyayisandul’ ukufunyanwa yasetyenziswa ukuze kuliwe iimfazwe ezaphalaz’ igazi labantu abaninzi. Kwakhona, ayizange nje ibangele ukunyhashwa kwamalungelo abantu baloo mimandla, ukucinezelwa nokuxhatshazwa kwabo, kodwa yabangela neemfazwe ezaqhubeka ukutyhubela amakhulukhulu eminyaka njengoko amazwe ayesilwela igunya nelungelo lokusebenzisa iilwandle.

^ isiqe. 9 Ukuze ufunde okungakumbi ngalo popu owayebole bhutyu lurhwaphilizo, funda inqaku elithi, “UAlexander VI—IPopu Engasokuze Ilityalwe YiRoma,” kwiMboniselo kaJuni 15, 2003, kwiphepha 26-29.