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UVUKANI! MATSHI 2015

Ilanga Nomoya—Izibulala Ntsholongwane Zemvelo?

Ilanga Nomoya—Izibulala Ntsholongwane Zemvelo?

XA oososayensi bafumana imichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane kwiminyaka yoo-1900, oogqirha baba nethemba lokuba amayeza enziwe ngale michiza ayeza kuphelisa ezinye zezifo. Ekuqaleni, kwakungathi loo nto iyenzeka, kodwa ukusetyenziswa kwayo kakhulu, kwabangela ukuba kubekho iintsholongwane eza zingasanyangeki yile michiza.

Bekhangela iindlela ezintsha zokulwa ukosuleleka kwabantu zizifo, abanye oososayensi babuyela kwiindlela zokunyanga ezazikhe zasetyenziswa. Enye yazo yindlela ilanga kunye nempepho eziyimpilo ngayo.

Bakha Kuvimba

Mandulo eNgilani babeliqela abantu ababonayo ukuba ilanga nempepho ziyaphilisa. Ugqirha John Lettsom owazalwa ngo-1744 waza wafa ngo-1815 wacebisa ukuba abantwana abanesifo seTB baphefumle impepho yolwandle baze bagcakamele nelanga. Ngo-1840, ugqirha George Bodington waqaphela ukuba abantu abasebenza phandle njengabelusi nabalimi babengafane babe neTB, kodwa kwakulula ukuba abantu abasebenza endlini bayifumane.

UFlorence Nightingale owazalwa ngo-1820 waza wafa ngo-1910 waduma ngokuba ngumongikazi oyincutshe xa wayenyanga amajoni aseBritani awayesilwa iMfazwe yaseCrimea. Wathi: “Ukhe uyive indlela onuka kakubi ngayo umoya osegumbini lomntu . . . ebusuku, okanye ekuseni xa engekavuli zifestile?” Wacebisa ukuba umoya osegumbini lesigulana ufanele ucoceke njengophandle, kodwa singagodoliswa sona. Wongeza ngelithi: “Kule minyaka ndingumongikazi ndiye ndafunda ukuba enye into izigulana eziyidingayo kukukhanya . . . Kungekhona ukukhanya nje, kodwa okwelanga.” Ngezo ntsuku abaninzi babe kholelwa ukuba ukwaneka amashiti  neengubo kunye neempahla elangeni kunegalelo empilweni yomntu.

Nangona ukususela kwiminyaka yoo-1800 isayensi iye yaphucuka,

uphando lwale mihla lusafumanise into efanayo. Ngokomzekelo, uphando olwenziwe eTshayina ngo-2011 luye lwafumanisa ukuba abafundi abahlala kumagumbi axineneyo, angena zifestile zaneleyo “bayathanda ukuba nengxaki yesifuba.”

Umbutho onjengene nezempilo emhlabeni wonke iWorld Health Organization ubonile ukuba umoya osuka phandle uluncedo ekuphepheni ukosuleleka zizifo. Ngo-2009 lo mbutho wapapasha imiyalelo ekhuthaza ukuba amagumbi eendawo zempilo akwazi ukungena umoya osuka phandle kuba oku kunceda izigulana zingosuleleki lula zizifo. *

Usenokuthi, ‘ndiyayiva, kodwa siqiniseka njani ukuba isayensi iyayingqina yonke le nto? Ilanga nempepho zisikhusela njani kwizifo?’

Esinye Isibulala Ntsholongwane Semvelo

Iimpendulo sizifumana kuphando olwenziwa liSebe lezoKhuseleko laseUnited Kingdom. Oososayensi babefuna ukwazi ukuba xa kunokudutyulwa isixhobo esisasaza iintsholongwane ezinobungozi phezu kwesixeko saseLondon sonke, umoya unganobungozi ixesha elingakanani. Ukuze bakubone oko, baye baqaba iintsholongwane ezifumaneka kwilindle kwintambo yesigcawu baza bayijingisa emoyeni. Yonke le nto bayenza ebusuku kuba besazi ukuba ilanga liyazibulala ezi ntsholongwane. Kwenzeka ntoni?

Emva kweeyure ezimbini, phantse zonke ezo ntsholongwane zazifile. Xa ngoku le ntambo yesigcawu iqatywe iintsholongwane yafakwa ebhokisini, yaza yabekwa kwakula ndawo inye, kwadlula iiyure ezimbini uninzi lwazo lungekafi. Ngoba? Kucacile ukuba kukho into esemoyeni ebulala iintsholongwane, kodwa akukaqinisekwa ukuba yintoni. Abaphandi bathi kukho “isibulala ntsholongwane semvelo esisemoyeni.”

Nemitha yelanga inazo izibulala ntsholongwane. Imagazini i-Journal of Hospital Infection ithi, “uninzi lweentsholongwane ezisemoyeni ezigulisayo ziyafa elangeni.”

Ngoko ke ukuchitha ixesha elaneleyo elangeni, ukhe ufumane nempepho kungakunceda.

^ isiqe. 9 Izinto ezifana nobumdaka bomoya waphandle, ingxolo kunye nemithetho ebekelwe ukukhusela abantu xa kusitsha kunye nokhuseleko zenza kube nzima ukushiya iifestile zivuliwe.

Funda Okungakumbi

Khusela Impilo Yakho

La macebiso alula anokukunceda ukhusele impilo yakho, wonge ixesha nemali.